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Buddha; His Life, His Doctrine, His Order. By 

Dr. Hehjtaxn Oldexbeho, Professor at the University of 
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A Manual of Buddhism in its Modem Development ; 

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Eastern Monachism ; an Account of the Origin, Laws, 
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BUDDHIST SCRIPrrRES IN PALI. 

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The Vinaya Pitakam, one of the principal Buddhist 
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HANDBOOK OF PALI. 



3^ 



.^ 






HANDBOOK OF PALI. 



AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR, 
A CHRESTOMATHY, AND A GLOSSARY. 



COMl'ILEU BY 



0. FRANKFURTER, Ph.D. 




WILLIAMS AND NORGATE, 

14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON; 

AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH. 

1883. 



HERTFORD: 

rUMTED BT 8TKPBBN AVSTI.t AMD BOMS. 




TO THE EEVEEEND 



RICHARD MORRIS, LL.D., M.A., 



TICE-PBESIDEKT OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIEir, 



AS A TOKEir 



OF FBIEKDSHIP AND KESPECT. 



ERRATA 



Page 


line. 


HKAD. 


Page 


line. 


RKAD. 


4 


33 


tanhd. 


31 


36 


tr. najjo to 1. 35. 


5 


5 


prthivi. 


34 


28, 29 


mdtuyd, mdtubhi. 


6 


25 ' 


moha. 


35 


22 


sakhdresu, sakhesu. 


6 


32 


odariko, oddro. 


35 


33 


attdnath. 


8 


31 


mudho. 


45 


5 


yam. 


It 


5 


mrnala. 


47 


18 


ekdrasa. 


9 


7 


ekddasa. 


48 


27 


adhiko. 


17 


4 


qravaka. 


52 


6 


kiyddi, tanddi. 


17 


16 


qalmali. 


60 


17 


kareyyum, kubbeyum 


17 


18 


khalldto. 


68 


10 


uccate. 


19 


18 


nikkho. 


68 


14 


ganhdti. 


21 


11 


ganhdti. 


68 


21 


daddallati. 


21 


21 


tikhino. 


68 


33 


bubhukkhatl. 


28 


11 


dvikoromi. 


74 


8 


dvi. 


31 


10 


adau. 


75 


29 


ddsiddsam. 


89 


27 


bliikkhu. 


105 


29 


nana. 


90 


17 


satapadl. 


108 


28 


ug^ranbatha. 


94 


29 


pahiyissati. 


108 


31 


rakkba. 


95 


7 


Isanassa. 


109 


5 


amantesi. 


102 


22 


adinnadana. 


no 


22 


katabban. 


103 


8 


sabbadhi. 


110 


24,26 


gilmini. 


103 


10 


panudanam. 


113 


15.' 


uetbani. 


103 


20 


sa. 


114 


19 


addasuih. 


103 


29 


samekkhasi. 


114 


21 


addakkliuiii. 


104 


2 


yasassi so. 


117 


30 


asayarnvasi. 


104 


3 


namaso. 


121 


28? 


paradaresii. 


104 


12,13 


vandama. 


121 


29 


vijauaina. 



XXIV 



ERRATA. 



Page. line. BUD. 

124 9 paligiintliito. 

125 8 dakklUnti. 

125 18? Kasibharadvajo. 

132 12 sampajano. 

143 20 upajjhayena. 

144 11, etc. ussaho. 
144 35 haritattaya. 



Page. line. 

146 7,8? 

147 14 
144 16 

148 24 

149 27 

150 9 



BKAU. 

sammata. 

sammata. 

avippavasaih. 

anumodama. 

yacati. 

dharayamlti. 



1544 18 
1544 30 
159a 12 
165a 2 



anu'kathayati. 
anu-parayati. 
ussaho. 
satta-nikdyo. 



167a 9 add. panudanam ' removal.' 



170* 29 bhikkhunl. 

1735 34 valittaro. 

176a 25 add. sata-padt (f) ' a centi- 
pede.* 



Pag'e 60. The first person plural of the optative ends sometimes in ' a,' 
e.g. viharemu, j'dnemu. This is an archaic form, occurring mostly io 
verses. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 

Pali Bibliography 



Pakt I 



Alphabet 
Pronunciation 
Classification of Letters 
Vowels . 
Short Vowels 
Long Vowels 
Nasal Vowels 
Interchange of Vowels 
Consonants . 
Phonetic Changes . 
Compound Consonants 
Sandhi . 

Euphonic Changes 
Declension . 
Declension of Nouns 
Comparison . 
Declension of Pronouns 
Numerals 

Cardinals . 

Ordinals . 
The Verb . 

Present System . 

Modes of the Present 

Perfect System . 

Aorist and Imperfect 

Future 

Conditional 

Participles, Infinitives 
Indeclinables 
Adverbs 
Prepositions . 
Compounds . 



FAOB 

. ix 

. XT 



Tense 



Gerunds 



Part II. 

Saranagamanam (Khuddaka Nikaya) 



1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

5 

7 

7 

7 

8 

II 

21 

24 

25 

29 

41 

42 

47 

47 

49 

61 

53 

58 

60 

61 

66 

67 

69 

70 

70 

73 

74 



PAOB 

SamaneraPanham (Khuddaka Nikaya) 82 
Dvatimsakuram ,, ,, 82 

Paccavekkhana (Anguttara Nikaya) 82 
Dasadhammasuttam ,, ,, 83 

Mahamangalasuttam (Khuddaka 

Nikaya) . . . . .84 
Ratanasuttam (Khuddaka Nikaya) . 85 
Karanlyamettasuttam 88 

Khandhaparittam(AnguttaraNikaya) 89 
Mettasuttam ,, 90 

Mettanisamsam (Jataka) . .91 
Moraparittam ,, . .92 

Candaparittam (Samyutta Nikaya) . 92 
Suriyaparittam ,, ,, .93 

Dhajaggaparittam . 94 

Mahakassappattherabojjhangam 

(Samyutta Nikaya) . . 96 

Girimanandasuttam (Samyutta 

Nikaya) 97 

Atilnatiyasuttam (Digha Nikaya) . 101 
Dhammacakkappavattanasuttam 

(Samyutta Nikaya) . . 109 

Mahusamayasuttam (Dlgha Nikaya) 112 
Alavakasuttam (Samyutta Nikaya) . 118 
Parabhavasuttam (Khuddaka Nikaya) 120 
Vasalasuttam 122 

KasibharadvajasuttaTn ,, ,, 126 

Saccavibhangam (Majjhima Nikaya) 127 
Arunavatisuttam (Samyutta Nikaya) 133 
Devadahasuttam ,, 136 

A Collection of Kammavacas . . 142 

Part III. 

Glossary 162 

Tables of Alphabets : 

Sinhalese Alphabet. 

Burmese Alphabet. 

Kambodian Alphabet. 
Comparative Table of Alphabets. 
b 



PREFACE. 



The Handbook of Piili which I place before my readers 
consists of three parts, an Elementary Grammar, a Chresto- 
mathy, and a Glossary. 

I have called the grammar an elementary one, because no 
attempt has been made to distinguish the different periods 
in the development of the language. To write a scientific 
grammar of Pali, it would be necessary not only to have 
recourse to the different so-called ancient Prakritic dialects, 
but also to the modern Aryan languages of India, more 
especially Mahrathl. I believe MahrathI to be, if not the 
daughter of Pali, at least more closely allied to it than 
any other of the Indian vernacular tongues ; and among 
these I include also Sinhalese. In fact, a scientific Pali 
grammar can, in my opinion, only be written as part of a 
comparative grammar of the Aryan languages of India. 

I have called this work a Handbook of Pali. This requires 
some explanation. I am well aware that Professor Forch- 
hammer, in his report of the Rangoon High School, 1879- 
1880, has shewn conclusively, as did the late Professor 
Childers before him, that Pali means only Sacred Texts. 
Professor Forchhammer, quoting from Burmese books, says : 
" The Tipitaka Pali was written by means of the Magadha- 
bhasha ; " and again, " The Pali of the Tipitaka may be 
preached by means of any language." He goes on to 
remark that "a Pali grammar and a Pali dictionary must 



X PREFACE. 

appear to the Burmans as an incomprehensible misnomer, 
or at best what to us would be a Bible dictionary or a 
grammar of the New Testament." I believe the examples 
are not very well chosen. In a grammar of the New Testa- 
ment we expect to find the New Testament Greek. A 
Bible dictionary would mean a cyclopaedia, in which one 
can find information on any Bible subject. 

I could have chosen "Handbook of Miigadhl" as a title 
of the book; but this would imply more than is actually 
given in the book. Under such a title one would expect 
to find a grammar of the Miigadhese Inscriptions and of 
the MagadhI of the drama. Moreover, in calling it a 
Handbook of MagadhI, I should have committed myself to 
a definite statement about the country in which the language 
of the Buddhist Scriptures was spoken. Pali means for 
European scholars the sacred language of the Buddhist 
Scriptures, and as a matter of convenience this designation 
ought to be kept until conclusive proofs are adduced 
to shew in which part of India this Prakrit dialect was 
spoken. "We have moreover the excellent authority of 
Subhuti, who calls his Abhidhdnappadlpikd a Pali dictionary, 
and his Ndmamdld a work on Pali grammar. 

As a reading-book I have chosen the Paritta. The text 
is based on a MS. in the British Museum (Or. 1092), written 
in Sinhalese characters. Besides this I had several printed 
Burmese copies, and one printed Sinhalese copy of the book. 
They however vary in the selection they give. None 
contains all the extracts given in the reading-book. Part 
of the Paritta has, as is well known, been published by the 
late Professor Childers, and by the late M. Grimblot, with 
notes and translations by M. L^on Feer. Some of the 
suttas which in the " Extraits du Paritta " are given as 



PREFACE. xi 

belonging to the Sutta Nipata occur also in the Samyutta 
Nikaya. The two suttas of the Digha Nikiiya wore pub- 
lished by the late M. Grimblot in the " Sept Suttas Palis." 
I have consulted the MSS. of the individual Nikayas in 
constituting the text. The translation of the Sutta Nipata 
given by Professor FausboU in the "Sacred Books of the 
East " was of great service to me in deciding on the merits 
of the various readings. I have not seen the " Ceylon 
Friend," in which the late Rev. D. Gogerly has translated 
most if not all the suttas belonging to the Paritta. I shall 
take an early opportunity of giving a more elaborate account 
of the compilation of the book and the different versions 
which we have of it. 

The other extracts given are "A Collection of Kamma- 
vacas." If the Paritta was intended to represent the style 
of the Sutta Pitaka, these may be taken as a fairly good 
specimen of the Yinaya Pitaka. I also reserve for a later 
occasion any mention of the relation of the Kammavacas 
to the Vinaya Pitaka, viz. if they stand in the same rela- 
tion to the Mahavagga and Cullavagga as the Patimokkha 
stands to the Sutta Yibhanga. The text of the Kam- 
mavacas is based on MSS. belonging to the Bodleian 
Library (Pali 1 and 2). They are written in the square 
character, and represent the usual Burmese orthography. 
A distinction between linguals and dentals is seldom made, 
nor do they write anusvdm after * and u. For several 
chapters I have consulted other MSS. in the British 
Museum, and some belonging to the Liverpool Free Library. 
They present the same texts, and are also written in the 
square painted character. Whilst examining the Liverpool 
MSS., in company with Professor Rhys Davids, to whom 
they had been sent by Sir James Allanson Picton for 



xii PREFACE. 

identification and report, we found that one of them (No. 
L 24091) was of especial value, as it contained a few extra 
Kammavueas not appearing in the usual text which I have 
given in the Chrestomathy. Professor Spiegel and Mr. 
Dickson have published part of the text (see Bibliography). 

The third part contains the Glossary. I have omitted 
in it all proper names. In employing two sorts of type 
and hyphens I have tried to distinguish between compound 
words and simple ones. Compound words ought all to have 
been given under their last member, as is done in Benfey's 
Sanskrit Dictionary. This is the only scientific way. The 
last member in the Indo-European languages is explained 
by the preceding ones, or as the late Professor Benfey put it 
in his lectures, " the defining members always precede 
the defined." But as all the second members did not 
occur in the glossary, I had to give up this plan, and to limit 
myself to using italics for compound words. I employ 
capitals, however, for compound words when the individual 
meaning of the component parts is another than that of the 
whole word ; e. g. addhayogo was printed in capitals for that 
reason. I have not attempted to explain the difierent philo- 
sophical terms which occur in the extracts. I give mostly 
one translation, and put a 1. 1. (technical term) after them. 
Fault may perhaps be found with the explanation of 
Nihhdnam as the summum bonum of the Buddhists; but 
among so many different views it seems to me best neither 
to offer an opinion nor to defend one. 

I have given the third person singular present of the 
verb, and translated this throughout with the infinitive. 
The third person singular present, as is well known, has 
in Indian grammar the same value as the infinitive of 
modern grammar. It is the type given for the verb by the 



PREFACE. xiii 

native grammarians. To give the so-called root did not 
commend itself to me for two reasons. First, the 
principle of the root- theory has been recently, and not 
without reason, greatly shaken, so that it would not be wise 
to introduce it. Secondly, it is difficult to determine what is 
the root of a Pali word. I have given the nominative case 
of nouns, and here I think I may deserve some blame. 
But, as is shewn in the chapter on declension, through the 
working of the phonetic laws none of the declensions keeps 
within its own range, and the crude form of a Pali noun is 
thus not easily fixed. 

I have availed myself on every occasion of all the books 
published on Pali grammar, and consulted Childers's Dic- 
tionary of the Pali Language. These works will be found 
in the appended Bibliography. I name here more particu- 
larly the works of Professors Kuhn and Minayefi", of M. 
Senart, of the Terunnanse Subhuti, and of Dr. Trenckner. 

I hope the Tables of Alphabets will be found useful. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Dr. Morris for many 
valuable suggestions, and for his kindness in looking over 
the proof-sheets. I am also indebted to the authorities of 
the Bodleian Library, the British Museum, and the India 
Office Library, for the courtesy and ready help I have 
uniformly received from them. 

0. FRANKFURTER. 

OxroKD, February, 1883. 



PALI BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



I. PALI LITERATURE. 

TuRNOUR, G. Examination of the Pali Buddhistical Annals. 
J.A.S. of Bengal, 1837, 1838. 

Westergaard, N. L. Codices Indici bibliothecae regioe 
Havniensis enumerati et descripti. Copenhagen, 1846. 

Hardy, Rev. R. S. List of Books in the Pali and Singha- 
lese Languages. J.R.A.S. Ceylon Branch, 1848. 

Alwis, J. DE. Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and 
Sinhalese Literary "Works of Ceylon. Colombo, 1870. 

Zoysa, L. de. Catalogue of Pali, Sinhalese, and Sanskrit 
Manuscripts in the Ceylon Government Oriental Library. 
Colombo, 1876. 

Forchhammer, E., Professor of Pali, Rangoon High School. 
Report by, for the year 1879-1880. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Report on Pali and Sinhalese. 
Transactions of the Philological Society, 1875-1876. 

Feer, L. Les nouveaux Manuscripts Palis de la biblio- 
theque nationale. Annales de I'extreme Orient, 1880. 

Morris, Rev. Dr. Richard. Report on Piili Literature, 
1875-1880. Transactions of the Philological Society, 
1881. 

Haas, E. Catalogue of Sanskrit and Pali Books in the 
British Museum. London, 1876. 

Trubner & Co. Catalogue of leading Books on Pali, 
Prakrit, and Buddhist Literature. London, 1881. 



xvi TALI BIBLIOORAPnY. 



II. TEXTS. 

ViNAYA PiTAKAM. One of the principal Buddhist Holy 
Scriptures. Edited by Hermann Oldenbcrg. 5 vols. 
London, 1879-1883. 

Kammavaca. 

Spiegel, F. Kammavjikyam, liber de officiis 
buddhicorum piilice et lutine edidit. Bonn, 
1841. 

Anecdota Palica. Chaps, ii, iii. v. 



Leipzig, 1845. 
Boehtlingk, 0. Bulletin de I'Academie Imp^riale 

des Sciences, 1844, No. 22, chap. iv. 
Dickson, J. F. Upasampada Kammavaca. J.R.A.S. 

1875. 
The Pall Manuscript written on 

Papyrus, preserved in the Library of the 

Armenian Monastery, St. Lazaro. Venice, 

1875. (This appears to be a reprint of the 

preceding.) 

Patimokkha. 

Minayeff, J. Pratiraoksha Sutra buddijskij sluzeb- 

niku izdannyj i perevedennyj. Petersburg, 

1869. 
Dickson, J. F. Piltlraokkha, being the Buddhist 

Office of the Confession of Priests. J.R.A.S. 

1876. 

SUTTA PiTAKAM. 

DTOHA NiKAYA. 

Qrimblot, P. Sept Suttas Palis, tir^s du Digha 

Nikaya. Paris, 1876. 
Childers, R. C. Mahaparinibbanasutta. London, 

1878. 
Mahasatipatthanasutta. Maulmain, 1881. 



PALI BIBLIOGRAPEY. xvii 

SUTTA PlTAKAM. 

SaMYUTTA NlKAYA. 

Feer, H. L. Le Bhikkhuni Samyuttam, M^raoires 
de la Societe d'Ethnographie, Sect. Orient, 
1877. 

Frankfurter, 0. Buddhist Nirvana and the Noble 
Eightfold Path. J.R.A.S. 1880. 

MaJJHIMA NlKAYA. 

Pischel, R. A8sala3'anasuttam. Edited and trans- 
lated. Chemnitz, 1880. 

Anguitara Nikaya. 

Morris, Rev. Dr. R. Publications of the Pali Text 
Society. 

Khuddaka Nikaya. 

FausboU, y. The Jataka, together with its Com- 
mentary. Vols. i. and ii. London, 1877, 
1879. 

Two Jatakas ; the original Pali text, 

etc. London. 

Five Jatakas. Copenhagen, 1861. 

Ten Jatakas, Copenhagen, 1872. 

The Dasaratha Jataka. Copenhagen, 



1874. 
Zachariae, Th. Die sechszehnte Erzahlung des 

Vetalapaucaviri9ati. Contains the Umma- 

dantl-jataka. B.B. iv. p. 375. 
"Weber, A., and Fausboll, V. Die Sage von der 

Entstehung des Sakya und Koliya Ge- 

schlechtes. Indische Streifen i. Berlin, 

1868. 
Fausboll, V. Dhammapadam, ex tribus codicibus 

Havniensibus Palice edidit. Copenhagen, 

1855. 
Childers, R. C. Khuddaka Piitha, with English 

translation, etc. J.R.A.S. 1870. 
Spiegel, F. Anecdota Palica. Leipzig, 1845. 

Contains the Uragasutta of the Sutta Nipata. 



xviii TALI BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

SUTTA PlTAKAM. 

Khuddaka Nikaya. 

Alwis, J. de. Buddhist Nirvana. Colombo, 1871. 

Contains extracts from the Sutta Nipata. 
Morris, Rev. R. Cany a Pitaka. 

Buddhavamsa. (Publications of 

the Piili Text Society.) 
Feer, H. L. Textes tir^s du Kandjour. 11 livraisons. 

Paris, 1864-1871. 
Gray, J. Ajjhatta Jaya Mangalam. Rangoon, 1881. 
Grimblot, P. Extraits du Paritta, texte et commentaire, 
avec introduction, traduction, notes et notices par L^on 
Feer. J.A. 1871. 
Feer, H. L. Fft\ides Buddhiques. J.A. 1870, etc. 
Pirit Pota {i.e. Paritta). Colombo, 2411 (1869). 
Mahaparitto. Rangoon, 1879. 
Mahaparitto. Rangoon, 1881. 
Mangalasutta. 2nd ed. Rangoon, 1881. 



Mahavamso. In Pali and English, with an Introductory 

Essay on Pali Buddhistical Literature. Vol. i. By 

Q. Tumour. Colombo, 1837. 
From the 37th Chapter. Translated and edited 

by H. Sumangala and Don Andris de Silva Batuwantu- 

dawa. 2 vols. Colombo, 1877. 
DiPAVAMSA. A Buddhist Historical Record. Edited, with 

an English translation, by H. Oldenberg. London, 1879. 
Dhammakitti. The Dathavamsa, the Pali text and its 

translation into English. By Mutu Coomdra Swamy. 

London, 1874. 
Hatthavanagallavamsa. The Attanagalluvansa. Trans- 
lated from the Pali by J. d* Alwis, with the Pali text. 

Colombo, 1866. 
MiLiNDAPANHO. Being Dialogues between King Milinda 

and the Buddhist Sage Nagasena. Edited by V. 

Trenckner. London, 1880. 



PALI BIBLIOGRAPHY. xlx 

III. TRANSLATIONS. 

Clough, Rev. B. The Ritual of the Buddhist Priesthood. 
Translated from the original Pali work entitled Karma- 
vakya (Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental "Writers, 
vol. ii. London, 1834). 

Beal, Rev. S., and Gogerly, Rev. D. J. Comparative 
Arrangement of Two Translations of the" Buddhist 
Ritual for the Priesthood. London, 1862. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys, and Oldenberg, H. Vinaya Texts. 
Translated from the Pali. Part I. The Piitimokkha ; 
the Mahiivagga. Oxford, 1881. (Sacred Books of the 
East, vol. xiii.) 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Buddhist Suttas. Oxford, 1881. 
(Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi. Contains the Maha- 
parinibbtina Sutta, the Tevijja Sutta, the Mahasudassana 
Sutta, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, the Sabba- 
sava Sutta.) 

Buddhist Birth Stories, or Jataka 

Tales. London, 1880. 

Weber, A. Dhammapadam (Indische Streifen). 

MtJLLER, F. Max. Buddha's Dhammapada. Translated 
from Pali. (Buddhaghosha's Parables. Translated from 
Burmese by H. T. Rogers. London, 1870.) 

Dhammapada ; a Collection of Verses, 

translated from Pali. Oxford, 1881. (Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. x. part 1.) 

Hu, Ferd. Dhammapadam traduit en Fran9ais, avec intro- 
duction et notes. Paris, 1878. 

SwAMY, Sir M. Coomara. Sutta Nipata, or the Dialogues 
of Gotama Buddha. Translated from the Pali, with 
Introduction and Notes. London, 1874. 

Faxjsboll, V. The Sutta Nipata ; a Collection of Discourses, 
translated from Pali. Oxford, 1881. (Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. x. part 2.) 



XX PALI BIBLIOGRAPnT. 

IV. DICTIONARIES, GRAMMARS, AND 
GRAMMATICAL PAPERS. 

MoGOALLANA Thero. Abhidlulnappadlpiku, with English 

and Sinhalese Interpretations, etc. By Waskaduwe 

Subhuti. Colombo, 1865. 
Childers, R. C. A Dictionary of the Pali Language. 

London, 1875. 
Clough, B. a Compendious Pali Grammar, with a Copious 

Vocabulary in the same Language. Colombo, 1824. 
BuKNouF, E., and Lassen, Chr. Essai sur le Pali. Paris, 

1826. 
Observations grammaticales sur quelques 

passages de I'essai sur le Pali. Paris, 1827. 
Storck, "W. De declinatione nominum in lingua Piilica. 

Berlin, 1858. 
Casuum in lingua Palica formatio. Miinster, 

1862. 
MiJLLER, F. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Pali Sprache. 

Vols. i. ii. iii. Vienna, 1867-1869. 
MiNAYEFF, J. Gram'maire Palie, traduite par St. Guyard. 

Paris, 1874. 
KuHN, E. W. A. Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik. Berlin, 1875. 
ToRP, A, Die Flexion des Pali in ihrem Verhaltnis zum 

Sanskrit. Christiania, 1881. 
Trenckner, V. Pali Miscellany. Vol. i. London, 1879. 
GoLDSCHMiDT, S. Prukritica. Strassburg, 1879. 



BIlavataro. Pandita Devarakkhitacariyena Samsodhito. 
Colombo, 1869* [2412 a.b.]. 

Kaccayana. 

Alwis, J. de. Introduction to Kaccayana's Grammar 

of the Pali Language. Colombo, 1863. 
KuHN, E. W. A. Kaccayanappakaranae specimen. 

Halle, 1869. 
specimen 

alterum. Halle, 1871. 



TALI BIBLIOGRAPHY. xxi 

Kaccayana. 

Mason, F. The Piili Text of Kachcliayano's Graraniar, 

with English Annotations. Toongoo, 1871. 
Senart, E. Kaccayana et la litterature grammaticale 

du Pali, l"* Partie. Paris, 1871. 
SIlavamsa. Kaccayana's Dhatumanjusa. Edited, with 
a translation in Sinhalese and English, by Deva- 
rakkhita. Colombo, 1872. 
Waskaduwe Subhuti. Naraamala, or a "Work on Pali 

Grammar. Ceylon, 1876. 
Sumangala. Declension and Conjugation of Pali "Words. 

Edited by M. Gunaratana. Ceylon, 1873. 
Sangharakkhita Thera. Subodhalahkara. (Pali Studies, 

by Major G. E. Fryer.) Calcutta, 1875. 
"Vuttodaya. Edited, with trans- 
lation and notes, by Major G. E. Fryer. Calcutta, 1877. 
Yuttodaya, die Pali Metrik des 



herausgegeben von J. Minayeff. Melanges Asia- 

tiques, vi. 
Childers, R. C. On Sandhi in Pali. J.R.A.S. n.s. iv. 

p. 309. 

Dakkh in Pali. K.B. viii. p. 150. 

The Prakrit Dekkh. K.B. vii. p. 450. 

PiscHEL, R. Die wurzeln ^pekkh, dakkh und dekkh in 

Prakrit. K.B. vii. p. 453. 
"Weber, A. Zur Yerstiindigung. K.B. vii. p. 458. 
PiscHEL, R. Zur Paligrammatik. K.Z. xxiii. p. 423. 
Jacobi, H. Vocaleinschub in Pali. K.Z. xxiii. p. 594. 
ZiMMER, H. Zur Paligrammatik. K.Z. xxiv. p. 220. 
Oldenberq, H. Bemerkungen zur Paligrammatik. K.Z. 

XXV. p. 314. 
GoLDscHMiDT, S. Priikritische Miscellen. K.Z. xxv. 

pp. 436, 610. Z.D.M.G. xxxii. p. 99. 
PiscHEL, R. Pali acchati. B.B. iii. p. 155. 
Die de9lcabdas bei Trivikrama. B.B. iiL 

p. 255. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



abl.=: ablative. 

ace. = accusative. 

adj. = adjective. 

adv. = adverb. 

aor.=aori8t. 

attn.=atmane. 

caus. = causative. 

comp., cp.=eompare. 

cond. =conditional. 

conj. = con junction. 

dat.= dative. 

f. = fem. 

foil. = following. 

fr. = from. 

fut. = future. 

gen. = genitive. 

ger. = gerund. 

Imperat. = Imperative. 

inf. = infinitive. 

instr. = instrumental. 

loc.=locative. 

m. = masculine. 

n. = neuter. 

num. = numeral. 

opt. = optative. 

p. f. p. = participle of 

future passive, 
p. p. = participle present. 



the 



p. p. p. = participle of the per- 
fect passive. 

par.=para8mai. 

part. = particle. 

pass. = passive. 

pers.= person. 

pe=peyyalo, etc. 

pi. = plural. 

prep. = preposition. 

pres. = present. 

pret. = preterite. 

sep. = separately. 

sing. = singular. 

t.t.= technical term. 

voc.= vocative. 

J. A. = Journal Asiatique. 

J. II. A. S. = Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

B. B. = Bezzenberger, bei- 
trage sur kunde der indo- 
germanischen sprachen. 

K.B. = Kuhn's Beitrage. 

K.Z =Kuhn*8 zeitschrift fiir 
vergleichende sprachfor- 
schung. 

Z. D. M. G. = Zeitschrift d. 
deutschen morgenlan- 

dischen gesellschaft. 



HANDBOOK OF PALI. 

PART I. 

AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR. 



1. THE ALPHABET. 

Pali, the sacred language of the Buddhists, is written, 
according to the countries from which the MSS. come, either 
in Sinhalese (Ceylon), Burmese (Burma), or Karabodian 
(Siam) characters. The system of writing in the original 
characters is syllabic and consonantal (as will be seen from 
the appended table). 

To transliterate these characters the following system is 
now mostly adopted : 

u u e 

urn 

g gh n 

j jh n 

d {I) dh (/h) n 

d dh n 

b hh m 

I V 



2. PRONUNCIATION. 

The vowels are pronounced in the Continental way. The 
short a has mostly the indistinct sound as in English hut. 
The uasal vowels are now pronounced in Ceylon and Burma 

1 



Vowels : 


a a 


it 


Nasal vowels ; 


: am 


im 


Consonants : 


k' 


kh 




c 


ch 




t 


th 




t 


'th 




P 


ph 




y 


r 




8 





2 PALI GRAMMAR. 

like the guttural nasal in English hang. e and o are 
metrically always long, but pronounced short before two 
consonants. 

The consonants are pronounced in the manner known from 
Sanskrit grammar. 

c is English ch. 

is the Spanish ti and French ng in campagne. 

V is pronounced as English or French v, except when 
preceded by a consonant in the same syllable, in which case 
it has the sound of English w. 

The aspirated letters, surd and sonant, are pronounced as 
the corresponding non-aspirates followed by /*. 

The sound of the nasal is defined by the letter which 
follows it, cf. English hang, hand, bench, hemp. 

3. CLASSIFICATION OF LETTERS. 

All the vowels and consonants are arranged by the native 
grammarians under the following classes : 

1) a k kh g gh h and h are considered gutturals (kanthaja). 

2) t c chjjh n and y are termed palatals {tdluja). 

3) u p ph h bh m are termed labials {oHhaja). 

4) t th d (/) dh (Ih) n r are termed linguals {muddhaja)} 

5) t th d dh n I .t are termed dentals {dantaja). 

6) e is termed gutturo-palatal [kaiithatdluja). 

7) is termed gutturo-labial {kantkoUhaja). 

8) V is termed dento-labial (dantolthqja) , 

% 4. VOWELS. 

1) Pali being one of the Indian dialects, is best con- 
sidered in comparison with one of those dialects of which the 
grammar is already firmly established, viz. Sanskrit. 

In the Sacred Books of the East, edited by Prof. Max Miiller, the palatals 
are printed, like gutturals, in italics, and the cerebrals likewise as dentals in 
italics, thus : k kh g gh n, t th d dh n. 

This transliteration seems to imply that the palatals arise always from the 
gutturals, and that they stand in the same relation to these as the linguals stand to 
the dentals. This is, howerer, not the case in Pali. 

The system adopted in this handbook is used in most of the texts published up to 
the present time, such as Dr. Oldenbcrg's edition of the Vinayapi^aka, Prof. 
Fausbiill's Jataka, and also in Childers's Dictionary of the Pali Language. 



SHORT VOWELS. 3 

2) In comparing Piili with Sanskrit forma, it must always 
be kept in mind that Sanskrit is not to be regarded as the 
parent language : but as the dialect which best represents 
the primitive Aryan speech, to which Sanskrit and Pali stand 
in the relation of elder and younger sisters. 

In comparing the Pali vowels with those of Sanskrit, we 
find that Pali has no written characters for the r and / vowels. 
It has not the diphthongs ai au, and lacks the long nasal 
vowels. 

We find therefore in Pali three short vowels a i u, and five 
long vowels a I u e o, and three nasal vowels am hn urn, which 
are also considered long, and which are technically called 
niggahlta. 

As to the accent, which plays such a conspicuous part in 
Vedic Sanskrit, no accented texts have been handed down. 
It is, however, clear that Pali possessed a free accent 
just as much as Sanskrit, and every other Aryan language. 
It is now the fashion in Ceylon and Burma to give the accent 
to the long syllable in every word. 

A syllable is considered long, if it contains one 
of the long, or nasal vowels, or a short vowel 
followed by two consonants. 

A Pali word may only end in a vowel or nasal vowel. 
For exceptions see the chapter on Sandhi. 

5. SHORT VOWELS. 

In comparing the Pali vowels with those of Sanskrit, it will 
be seen that the short vowels a i u correspond as a rule to 
those of Sanskrit. 

A short vowel followed by two consonants corresponds to 
a Sanskrit long vowel ; thus we have : maggo Skr. nijirga 
* path ' ; majjdro Skr. miirjara ' cat ' ; ratti Skr. ratri * night' ; 
saddhim Skr. sardham * with ' ; ikkhati Skr. Ikshati * to 
look * ; kitti Skr. kirti * fame ' ; tittham Skr. tirtha ' landing- 
place*; t//<!^^o Skr. dhurta 'gamester'; mutlam Skr. mutra 
' urine ' ; suttam Skr. sutra. 



4 PALI GRAMMAB. 

An original long vowel following a simple consonant 
can arbitrarily be shortened by doubling the consonant. 
This seems only to be graphic, as in the metre no difference 
is made between a form hahunnam and bahunam, gen. plur. 
m. and n. of ba/iu ' much,' or al/dpo and d/dpo 'speech.' 

In the gen. plur. m. and n. of the numerals tinnam pahcan- 
nam channam the forms with doubled nasals are in use. 

The syllable ya is changed to i. Among the examples 
given is nigrodho for Skr. nyagrodha, majjhimo for Skr. 
madhyarad. The process called samprasarana. 

In the same way va is contracted into u in such words as 
latukikd Skr. latvakii * quail.' 

6. Pali has, as was shown above, no written character 
corresponding to the Sanskrit r and / vowels. 

It is a well-known fact that those two vowels originate in 
Sanskrit and other languages for the most part through the 
abbreviation of a syllable which contains an r or /through 
the influence of the accent. 

Theoretically, therefore, one would expect to find in Pali 
a short syllable containing an r or / element. This r or I 
element may be inherent in the vowel. We find a whole 
syllable with the consonant r to represent the Sanskrit vowel. 

r, practically speaking, therefore, is represented in Pali by 
one of the short vowels a i u or by the consonant r in con- 
junction with one of the vowels a i m, which in this case are 
vowel fractures (svarabhakti). 

There is no fixed rule for the use of these vowels, and in 
difierent, sometimes in the same, texts, they are used in- 
diflferently in the case of the same word, and the divergency 
in the use of these vowels shows that they were employed in 
a merely tentative way to indicate the sound in writing. 

1) a=r in kato Skr. krta ' made * ; gmihdti Skr. grhnuti * to 
seize * ; mato Skr. mrtd ' dead ' ; ianhTt Skr. trshna ' lust.' 

2) i=^r in isi Skr. rshi *a sage' ; kicco Skr. krtyd ' what is to be 
done' ; pitthatn pitlhl Skr. prshtha ' back ' ; inam Skr. rn4 * debt.' 

3) M=r in samvitto Skr. saravrtd 'restrained'; uju Skr. rjd 
' straight.' 

4) r=r in iritvyo Skr. ytvij *a priest'; iru Skr. re 'hymn'; 



LONG VOWELS. 6 

bi'uheti Skr. brmbayati * to increase ' ; hrohd Skr. brh&nt 

* great ' ; ruhkho Skr. vrkshd * tree.' 

5) r= or i or u in the same word : 

niigo mago Skr. mrga * antelope ' ; accho ikko Skr. rksha 
'bear*; pathavi put hurl Skr. prthivi 'earth'; sati sainuti Skr. 
smrti * thought ' ; vuddhi vaddhi Skr. vrddhi * increase.' 

The long r vowel is of later development in Sanskrit, and 
has therefore no equivalent in Pali. 

The so-called root klip, the only one which contains an 
/ vowel, in Sanskrit becomes kappati. 

7. In comparing Pali words with corresponding Sanskrit, 
in several instances a difference in the vowels is to be found. 
This is generally the case in unaccented syllables, 
and the reason for such a practice lies in assimila- 
tion. In several instances, however, words are used with 
both vowels. 

muti mati Skr. mati * mind ' ; pana puna Skr. punar ; puriso 
puruso Skr. purusha 'man ' ; ucchu Skr. ikshu ' sugar-cane.' 

Pukkuso Skr. Pukka9a ; Kondantio Skr. Kaundinya ; 
candimd Skr. candramas ' moon ' ; saddhim Skr. sardham ; 
jigucchati Skr. jugupsati ' to dislike ' ; timisam tamisam 
Skr. tamisra * darkness ' ; Timingalo Titnihgilo Skr. Timingila ; 
nitthuhhati nutthubhati Skr. nishthiv ' to spit out ' ; muca- 
lindo Skr. mucilinda * a tree ' ; dyasma Skr. ayushmant 

* venerable ' ; kutumbam kutitnbam Skr. kutumba ' family.' 

Where a difference in the vowel takes place in conjunction 
with one of the semivowels or nasals, the vowels only desig- 
nate a partial vowel, such as in garu Skr. guru, Greek ^apv, 

8. LONG VOWELS. 

The long vowels a i u agree with the corresponding 
Sanskrit, with the exception above stated, that a long vowel 
followed by two consonants is represented in Pali by 
a short one. 

1) a: d=a 'the prep.' sddhu Skr. sadhu 'good'; data 
Skr. datr * giver.' 

2) T : iti Skr. Iti ' calamity * ; gltam Skr. gita * a song ' ; 
j'nitam Skr. jivita 'life.' 



6 TALI GRAMMAR. 

3) u : &no Skr. iina ' deficient * ; 8upo Skr. supa * broth ' ; 
mulho Skr. mudha ' foolish.* 

9. The long vowels e and o correspond to the Skr. diph- 
thongs e and o, and sometimes to the diphthongs ai an. 

They combine therefore guna and vrddhi of i and u, and 
they go back to these vowels accordingly, before a compound 
consonant. 

1) e: eti Skr. eti 'he goes'; ekam Skr. eka 'one'; hetu 
Skr. hetu ' cause.* 

jeguccho ' contemptible ' goes back to jigucchd ; keldso 
* suffering from a cutaneous complaint ' to kilaso. 

ediso eriso edikkho erikkho * such ' to idam. 

gelanfiam 'sickness' to gildno, in which, however, the is 
svarabhakti for Skr. gluna. 

2) E=Skr. ai : 
Eravano Skr. AirJivana. 

etihyam Skr. aitihya ' traditional instruction.' 
ekdgdriko Skr. aikjigarika * a thief.' 

3) aya is contracted to e in the middle of a word ; katheti= 
kathayati ' to relate ' ; jeti^-jayati ' to conquer.' 

4) e arises out the contraction of avi in e.g. thero Skr. 
sthavira * an elder.* 

1) o: okam Skr. okas 'a house'; ojo Skr. ojas 'splendour'; 
lobho ' covetousness ' from luhhati Skr. lobha ' to be greedy ' ; 
tnoho Skr. moho ' delusion ' ; doso Skr. dosha ' blemish.* 

pothujjaniko ' belonging to an unconverted person,* 
puthujjano ; this latter stands for Skr. prthak. A form 
puthujjaniko, however, is also given. 

2) o=Skr. au : 

opammam Skr. aupamya 'comparison.' 
orahbhiko Skr. aurabhrika ' a shepherd.' 
odariko and odaro Skr. audiirika ' greedy.' 

3) ava is contracted to o in the beginning of a word ; the 
fuller form is almost always also in use: otdro and avatdro 
' descent ' ; okdro avakdro * vileness.' 

4) sometimes arises from the vocalisation of v and its 
combinations with d as hoti=.bhavati and dhovati Skr. 
\/dhav ' to wash.' 



CONSONANTS. 7 

10. THE NASAL VOWELS. 

The nasal of every class, if preceded by a vowel, may 
arbitrarily become niggahlta. They correspond in every 
respect to Sanskrit. 

For a nasalized vowel, a simple long one can be substituted: 
nho ' lion ' for Skr. simha ; tlsati Skr. vim9ati. sam very 
often becomes sa : sdrdgo ' possessed of passion.* 

Every one of the five nasals can, before any other con- 
sonant or nasal, become niggahlta. The MSS. vary greatly 
in the expression of the nasals : mn/io, anno, ' other,' pamha, 
pofiha and panha 'question.' In very many cases the long 
vowel and the nasalized vowel appear in the same word. 

In later texts a short vowel is often nasalized : nagaram 
becomes nahgaram. This seems, however, a mistake of the 
Sinhalese copyists. 

11. INTERCHANGE OF VOWELS. 

By the side of hhlyo bhiyi/oz^Skr. bhuyas we find yehlmyyo 
yehhuyo, which is a contraction of yad+ bhuyas. 

Skr. a appears as u in the last part of such compounds as 
addhagu katannu, which stand respectively for Skr. adhvaga 
and krtajiia. 

In merayam 'intoxicating liquor,' Skr. maireya, second e 
appears in Pali as a. In milakkJw Skr. mleccho the Pali 
preserves the older form. It stands for mlaska. 

We sometimes find the gunated forms of words in Pali by 
the side of Sanskrit ungunated. 

12. CONSONANTS. 

The consonants are divided by the native grammarians 
into ghosavd * sounding,' and aghosd * surd.' They are : 

Ghosava : g, gh, h \ j, jh, n ; d, dh^ n ; d, dh, n ; b, bh, m ; 
y, r, /, V, h. 

Aghosa : k^ kh ; c, cA ; t, th ; t, th\ p, ph ; 8. 

The simple consonants of Piili mostly agree with those of 
Sanskrit and the other Indo-European languages. 



8 TALI GRAMMAR. 

The Gutturals, Palatals, Linguals, Dentals, Labials, as well 
as the semivowels and and /t, correspond in Sanskrit and 
Pali. 

Piili possesses all the consonants of Sanskrit, with the excep- 
tion of the palatal and lingual sibilant; the last of which is even 
in Sanskrit of late origin, and occurs only in the numeral 
8h(Vih and its derivatives, and in a few words in conjunction 
with the linguals according to phonetic rules. The dental 
sibilant takes the place of the three sibilants of Sanskrit. 
However, the aspirated surd palatal is found in, eg. 

chokam Skr. 9akrt * dung ' ; chdpo Skr. yava * young of an 
animal ' ; chavo Skr. 9ava * a corpse.* 

Skr. shash, which goes back to a form svaks, is represented 
in Pali by the form cha and chal. 

% 13. PHONETIC CHANGES. 

None of the changes pervades the whole grammar ; they 
only take place optionally, and can scarcely be called con- 
sistent. In most instances the leading motive for the change 
is euphony or false analogy ; in many instances also two 
forms occur, of which one preserves intact the form known 
from Sanskrit grammar. 

General Remarks. 

1) For Skr. mleccha Piili has milakkho *a stranger.* Here 
the Piili form is the older one, just as in bhhakko Skr. bhishaj 
* physician.' 

2) Palatals, in conjunction with one of the semivowels 
y, V, become sometimes dentals, 

3) Cerebrals /, M, can optionally be substituted for d, dh, 
in the middle of a word between vowels, the difference only 
being graphic, e.g. 

khiddd kild Skr. krTda * play * ; mulho mudho Skr. mudha 
' foolish ' ; dalho Skr. drdha * firm.' 

4) Through the influence of r, vowel or consonant, and 
and /*, the dentals are sometimes made cerebrals, e.g. 

dahali Skr. v/dah * to burn * ; daddho Skr. dagdhd * burnt.* 



PHONETIC CHANGES. 9 

ha to Skr. hrtd * seized ' ; pati Skr. prati * to.' 
upaft/idpanam Skr. upastliiipana * providing.* 

5) l=:d is substituted sometimes for n, e.g. muldlo Skr. 
mrnala * lotus-fibre ' ; vein venu Skr. venu * bamboo.' 

6) An interchange between d and r takes places, e.g. in 
ekdddsa ekdrasa ' eleven ' ; ediso eriso * such.' 

7) The mutes of one class are occasionally used for the 
mutes of another : 

Pakudho and Kakudho. 

kipiUiko and kipi/lako Skr. pipllika * ant.' 

gadduhano Skr. dadrughna * good for leprosy.* 

takkollam Skr. kakkola ' bdellium.' 

samputito sahkutito sahkucito from Skr. y/ kut or \/ kuc 
'shrivelled'; cikicchati and tikicchali Skr. cikits 'to care'; 
jighncchd dighacchd Skr. jighatsa * hunger.' 

8) For sonants the surds appear : 
pdtu Skr. priidur (in comp.). 
akildsu Skr. aglasnu ' healthy.* 
chakalo Skr. chagala ' a he-goat.* 

palikho paligho Skr. parigha 'an iron beam.* 

mudihgo mutihgo Skr. mrdanga ' a kettle-drum.* 

thakam Skr. sthagana ' covering.' 

chdpo Skr. 9a va ' young of an animal.' 

paldpo Skr. palava * chafi*,' perhaps through tbe influence 
of paldpo Skr. pralapa * nonsense.' 

avdpiirati and apdpurati Skr. ava-j- \/vr ' to open.' Several 
derivatives of sad show t in the place of d. 

9) An interchange between surd and sonants takes 
place, e.g.: 

Sdgald Skr. Qiikala ; elamugo Skr, edamuka ' deaf and 
dumb.' 

Nighandu Skr. Nighantu. 

For the cerebral t in such instances / appears, e.g. 

dlaviko Skr. iitavika ' dwelling in forests ' ; cakkavdlam and 
cakkabdio for Skr. cakraviita and cakrabala. 

10) We find v interchanged with p in the same word, and 
vice versd. This last change seems only graphic, e.g. 

kavi kapi Skr. kapi ' a monkey.' 



10 TALI GRAMMAR. 

11) A change takes place sometimes between the sonant 
aspirates, for which the aspirate h is substituted. 

lahu laghu Skr. laghu * light ' ; holi by the side of hhacati 
Skr. bhavati ; but also idha and iha for Skr. iha ' hither,' 
where the original form is, perhaps, preserved in Piili. 

12) n and / are frequently interchanged in Piili, e.g. 
nahgalarfi lahgalam Skr. liingala *a plough'; pilandhanam 

Skr. pinaddha ' an ornament.' 

Semivowels. 

1) y is inserted in a word to avoid hiatus after a consonant 
has been elided between two vowels, e.g. khdyito P.P.P. from 
khadati Skr. v/khad ' to eat ' ; sdyaniyo from sdyati for Skr. 
svadate * to taste.' 

For the same reason it appears as if y was interchangeable 
with V in such words as dniso voc. to ayasma, where it stands 
for duso. 

2) y is interchangeable with r in antardrati and antardyati 

* to run into danger ' Skr. antaraya * danger, impediment ' ; 
nahdru Skr. snayu * a sinew.' 

3) r is interchangeable with /, e.g. taluno taruno Skr. taruna 

* tender ' ; cattalisam cattarlmm Skr. catvarira9at * forty ' ; 
further in some of the numerals where r is interchanged with 
d, telasa terasa and tedasa Skr. trayoda^an 'thirteen.' jaldbu 
corresponds to Skr. jariiyu 'womb'; halidydhho haliddo and 
hari correspond to Skr. haridrabha and hari * yellow.' 

4) Purindado, an epithet of Indra, corresponds to a Skr. 
Purandara, the change being due to false etymology, just as 
in. palihodha 'obstacle,' where two roots have been confounded. 

5) For /, r is substituted occasionally, and the former is 
generally the original sound : kira Skr. kila ' they say ' ; 
drammanam Skr. iilambana ' support, basis * ; arahjaro Skr. 
alinjara ' waterpot.' 

6) We find / for Skr. d in bubbulam budbuda ' a bubble.' 

Nasals. 

The MSS. greatly vary in the expression of the nasals. 
No fixed rules can therefore be given, as also the native 



COMPOUND CONSONANTS. H 

grammarians are at variance in this respect. It may, 
however, be stated that r, h and s cerebralize a dental nasal, 
which then is interchangeable with the palatal nasal. 

14. COMPOUND CONSONANTS. 

In the beginning of every Pali word only vowels, simple 
consonants, or consonants in conjunction with the semivowels 
y, V, r, occur. Assimilation is the commonest means of eflfecting 
this change. This assimilation, of course, considerably alters 
the shape of a word, and therefore, when a word commences 
with a vowel or simple consonant in Sanskrit, in Pali also 
a vowel or simple consonant appears; whereas, if a double 
consonant, otherwise than in conjunction with y, r, v, com- 
mences a word, the corresponding word in Pali takes a 
different form. 

The same rules which apply to the beginning of a word 
also apply to the middle of a word. Here, also, conjunct 
consonants, belonging to different classes, are avoided 
through the help of assimilation, or through the insertion 
of a vowel. 

The rules of assimilation apply to the beginning of a word 
as well as to the middle, and if, at the beginning of a word, 
a simple consonant is exhibited, the word takes in com- 
position always the two sounds from which the simple sound 
originated. 

The chief rule for assimilation is, that of two consonants 
the former is entirely assimilated to the latter. The two 
sounds, if the one was a surd, the other a sonant, are assimilated 
(viz. the final letter is assimilated to the following initial) ; 
a perfect assimilation takes place, so that the two sounds 
are not only made to belong to one class, but also to the 
same order. In Piili itself it will be sufl&cient if the last of 
these processes is pointed out, as the first has taken place in 
common with other Indian dialects, anterior to the 
fixing of the Pali language. 

A second means of avoiding conjunct consonants was the 
insertion of a vowel between two letters. This could only 



12 TALI GRAMMAR. 

take place when one of the letters was a semivoicel or a nasal, 
in either of which the part of a vowel (svarabhakti) is 
already inherent. 

It remains now to consider the Phonetic changes which 
tuke place in the word itself : 

1) It is self-evident that when two consonants belonging 
to the same class meet together, they are preserved intact, e.g. 
cittani Skr. citta * mind, thought ' ; lajjd Skr. lajja * shame * ; 
annam Skr. anna ' food..' 

2) Mutes + Mutes are Assimilated. 

k + t =tt lattakam Skr. laktaka *a red dye'; wM/^d Skr. 

raukta 'pearl ' ; mutto Skr. mukta * released.' 
k-{-th=ztth sittham Skr. siktha 'bee's wax'; satthi Skr. 

sakthi * thigh.' 
g-\-dh=.ddh duddho Skr. dugdha 'milked.* 
g-\-hh=.bhh pahbharo Skr. pragbhara *a cave.* 
d-\-g ^=gg sagguno Skr. sadguna * good quality ' ; puggalo 

Skr, pudgala ' individual.* 
d-\-gh=:.ggh ugghoso Skr. udghosha 'proclamation'; uggharati 

Skr. ud+ \/ghr ' to open.' 
d-\-h =^bb bubbulam Skr. budbuda 'a bubble.* 
d-\-bh = bbh abbhufo Skr. adbhuta 'wonderful, mysterious.* 
p-\-t =U tatfo Skr. tapta ' burnt.' 
b-\-j =^jj khvjjo Skr. kubja 'limping,* 
b'\-d =.dd saddo Skr. 9abda ' sound.' 
b+dh=ddh laddho Skr. labdha ' taken.* 

3) Mutes + Nasals. 

ASSIMILATION. SVAKABIIAKTI. 

k \-n sakkoti sakunati Skr. 9aknoti * to be 

able.* 
k + m rumma rukuma Skr. rukma * gold.* 

g +n naggo Skr. nagnd 
* naked ' 
aggi aggini gini Skr. agni ' fire.* 

gh 4- n agghd Skr. aghnat * not 
kiUing.' 



SEMIVOWELS. 13 

A8SIMILATI0IT. STAKABHAKTI. 

/ +n fl'ww Skr. ajnji. 'command.' 

fidti Skr. jfiati * kinsman.' 
d {m kudumalo Skr. kudmala *an 

opening bud.' 
t + sappatto Skr. sapatna 

' hostile.' ratanam Skr. ratna * jewel.' 

gahapatdnl Skr. grhapatnl 
* housewife.' 
t + m attd atumd Skr. atman * self.' 

th + n mattho Skr. mathna 

* shaking.' 
rf +m chaddam Skr. chadman 

' roof.' padumam Skr. padma * lotus.' 

dh-\-m idhumam Skr. idhma * fire- 

wood.' 
p -^-n pappoti pdpiinati Skr. prapnoti * he 

obtains.' 
4) Nasal + surd remains mostly unchanged. 
However, by the side of amhd Skr. amba * mother,' we 
have amwd, and by the side of paaca ' five,' paJihdsa and 
pamidsa Skr. panca9at * fifty,' where the nn is probably due 
to the influence of s. 

Further, hhdjiako * a jar ' by the side of hhandaham 
* a utensil ' Skr. bhanda. 

6) Of two nasals the first is assimilated to the second, eg. : 
ninnam Skr. nirana 'depth.' 
jammam Skr. janman 'birth.' 

Semivowels. 

6) No fixed rules can be given, y, after gutturals, palatals, 
labials, and the sibilant s, is either preserved or assimilated, 
alwaj's so that the semivowel is assimilated to the preceding 
consonant (not as is the case with mutes in conjunction with 
mutes where the first sound is assimilated to the second) or 
a vowel is inserted between the mutes and the semivowel. 

An example will suffice : 

Sdkiyo Sakyo Sakko Skr. Qilkya. 



14 PALI GRAMMAR. 

7) j is made through the influence of // arbitrarily a dental 
in dosino ISkr. jyotsnii * a moonlit night,* but we have also 
junhd ; daddallati Skr. jiijvalyate * to blaze.* 

jijd eindjif/d Skr. jya * a bowstring.* 

8) The preposition abhi before vowels becomes ahhha. We 
have, of course, simple assimilation. Is gheppati pass, to 
Vgrah *to take *= Skr. grbhyate? 

9) In conjunction with the sibilants we have : 
dlasiyani diasyam dlassam Skr. alasya * sloth.* 
sdlo Skr. 9yala * brother-in-law.* 

10) The dentals in conjunction with y are palatalized or 
kept intact. 

c and ch sometimes represent the surd dentals when 
followed by y and j, and j'h, the sonant dentals in con- 
junction with y. The dental nasal -\-y Ib also palatalized, 
becoming tiFi. 

The preposition adhi before vowels becomes aj'/ha ; ati in 
the same way ace ; iti ' thus ' becomes ice. A form atyappo, is 
of frequent occurrence, this form, however, only shows i=^y 
before a vowel. 

Other examples are : 

paecmo Skr. pratyiisha * dawn ' ; saceo Skr. satya * true ' ; 
cdgo Skr. tyaga * abandoning ' ; majjam Skr. madya * strong 
drink'; majjho Skr. madhya 'middle*; hnjjo Skr. hrdya 'dear.* 

11) r, in conjunction with y, is either assimilated or both 
letters are preserved intact with intervening vowel. If 
assimilation takes place, r is always assimilated to y, thus 
we find yy, not rr, which never occurs in Pali. 

Cpr. ariyo and ayyo Skr. arya and arya ' noble.* 
bhariyd and hhayyd Skr. bhiirya * wife.' 
kdn'yo and kayyo Skr. karya * that ought to be done.* 

12) In a few instances r+y is assimilated to //, as in 
pallahko Skr. paryanka ' couch.* 

13) l-\-y is either preserved or y is assimilated to /=//. 
kalydno and kalldno Skr. kalyuna ' fortunate.* 

mllo Skr. 5alya ' an arrow * ; nallako Skr. 9alyaka * a 
porcupine.* 

14) v-\-y is difierently treated if it begins a word or if it 
is in the middle of a word. 



SEMIVOWELS. 15 

vy, according to Burmese and Siamese manuscripts, be- 
comes hy, whilst the Sinhalese write vy throughout at the 
beginning of a word, vydmo or hydmo Skr. vyama *a fathom.' 
This is often assimilated to v : vdio Skr. vyala * snake.' 

In the middle of a word it is either written 6y, ty, or 
with assimilation hb, or, though less frequently, yy. 

From kavi *a wise man, a poet,' kahbam and kavyam Skr. 
kavya * poetry.' 

pattabbo, but also pattayyo and pattabyo Skr. praptavya 

* attainable.' 

The preposition vi becomes by before vowels. 

15) h-\-y appears as yh, just as for A + r, the metathesis vh 
takes place. Besides this, we have assimilation and svarabhakti. 

asayho Skr. asahya * unendurable.' The participle P.P. 
from lehati is leyyo Skr. lehya ' to lick ' ; hiyo and hiyyo 
appear for Skr. hyas * yesterday.* 

16) ;* before gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, labials 
and the sibilant s is mostly assimilated. 

saggo Skr. svarga * heaven ' ; dlgho Skr. dirgha * long,' but 
digghikd * an oblong pond ' ; maggo Skr. marga * path ' ; 
kakkatako Skr. karkataka * a crab.' In sakkhard Skr. 9arkara 

* a potsherd,' we find aspiration. 

accati Skr. -v/arc * to honour ' ; ajjavam Skr. arjava * recti- 
tude ' ; maijdro Skr. marjiira * a cat * ; nijjaro Skr. nirjara 
'free from decay'; khajju Skr. kharju 'itching'; gajjati 
Skr. Vgarj * to roar ' ; miicchd Skr. murcha ' fainting.* 

pakinnako Skr. praklrnaka * miscellaneous ' ; unno Skr. urna 

* wool ' ; ramio Skr. varna * colour.' 

Before dentals assimilation takes place, and the dental is 
sometimes altered to a cerebral. The MSS., however, differ 
greatly in the use of dental and cerebral letters. 

We have kitti Skr. kirti ' fame * ; kevatto Skr. kaivarta 
' fisherman ' ; vattati and vattati Skr. y/\rt ; addho and addho 
Skr. ardha' half.' 

sappo Skr. sarpa * a snake * ; tappati Skr. Vtrp * to be 
glad ' ; gabbho Skr. garbha * womb ' ; dabbho Skr. darbha 
' kuca grass ' ; dhamrno Skr. dharma ' law ' ; katnmam Skr. 
karman * action ' ; Nammadd Skr. Narmada * Nerbudda.' 



16 TALI GRAMMAR. 

17) r-\-r=zbb: nibbdrtam Skr. nirvana (a technical term) ; 
gnbbo Skr. garva * pride * ; pabbato Skr. parvata ' mountain ' ; 
ubbt ' earth ' Skr. urvl. 

18) r-\-h. In this combination both letters are preserved 
with or without an inserted vowel: arahu Skr. arhant; tarahi 
tarhi Skr. tarhi * then ' ; garahati Skr. Vgarh * to blame.* 

19) If r follows gutturals, it is either assimilated or a 
"vowel is inserted, and both letters are preserved. In case of 

assimilation the guttural is optionally aspirated. 

cakkam Skr. cakra *a wheel*; akkodho Skr. akrodha 'mild- 
ness * ; kujjhati Skr. -v/^rudh * to be angry * ; gdhati Skr. 
-v/grah * to take * ; ghdyati Skr. -v/ghrii * to smell ' ; aggo Skr. 
agra * first ' ; kiriyd kriyd Skr. kriya ; kkiddd kild Skr. krida 
play.' 

20) For r followed by a palatal cpr. vajiro Skr. vajra 
' thunderbolt,' and paj'tro Skr. pajra * firm.* 

21) Dentals followed by r are either assimilated or preserved 
intact, r sometimes aspirates a preceding dental. Optionally, 
also, the dental is changed to a cerebral. In many instances 
we find three forms : 

kutra, kuttha, kutta Skr. kutra ' where ' ; gattam Skr. gatra 

* limb ' ; sattu satthu Skr. 9atru * enemy * ; bhadro bhaddo Skr. 
bhadra * good * ; giddho Skr, grdhra * greedy ' ; Dd/nilo Skr. 
Dravida ; dravo davo Skr. drava * liquid ' ; chuddho khuddho 
Skr. kshudra * mean.' 

22) After labials, r is assimilated: /)fl//Skr. prati (a prep.) ; 
pa Skr. pra (in compos.) ; pdno Skr. pnTna * breath * ; pii/o 
Skr. priya * dear * ; bhdmo Skr. bhrama ' whirling * ; sappamio 
Skr. sa+prajna * wise.* 

br is preserved in Brahmd Skr. Brahman ; bravlti Skr. 
v/bru *to speak.* 

mr is assimilated in the beginning : makkheti Skr. v/mrksh 

* to anoint' ; miyyati miyati Skr. v/mr * to die.' 

For mr in the middle of a word, cfr. ambo Skr. amra * the 
mango tree ' ; tambo Skr. tamra * copper.* 

23) v-\-r in the beginning of a word is assimilated to r, in 
the middle of a word it always becomes bb. 

vajati Skr. \/vraj * to walk ' ; hut pabbojati Skr. pra+ v^vraj 



SEMIVOWELS. 17 

* to go forth'; vajo Skr. vraja *a cow-pen*; subbato Skr. 
suvrata * conscientious ' ; tibbo Skr. tlvra ' sharp.* 

24) r, after sibilants, is assimilated : 

sdvako Skr. 9rdvako * pupil, follower ' ; sauu Skr. 9va9ru 

* mother-in-law ' ; assu Skr. a9ru * a tear * ; sitnoti Skr. y/<}r\x 

* to hear ' ; asso Skr. a9ra * corner* ; assavo Skr. asrava * dis- 
charge * ; but 8iri Skr. 9ri * fortune,' with svarabhakti. 

25) For /i + r, cp. hiri Skr. hrl * shame' ; ahirikd Skr. ahrl 

* shamelessness * ; rasso Skr. hrasva ' short ' ; rahado Skr. 
hrada * a pool.' 

26) / is assimilated before gutturals and labials. 
phaggu Skr. phalgu * reddish.' 

appo Skr. alpa * little ' ; kappo Skr. kalpa * period of time ' ; 
jappo Skr. jalpa ' word, speech * ; goppho Skr. gulpha * ancle.* 

27) Through metathesis gumbo Skr. gulma * thicket ' ; 
simbali Skr. ctilmali * cotton-tree.* 

28) For /+ V cp. kibbisam Skr. kilvisha * fault * ; billo, but 
also beluvo Skr. bilva and bailava * the vilva-tree ' ; khallato 
Skr. khalvata ' bald ' ; pallalam Skr. palvala ' small tank.' 

29) / after gutturals shows svarabhakti in kileso Skr. kle9a 

* sin * ; kilissati Skr. v/kli9 * to suffer * ; kilomakam Skr. 
kloman * right lung ' ; kilamati Skr. V^lara * to be tired ' ; 
gildno Skr. glana ' faded ' ; and from this an abstract 
gelanmm is formed, see 9. akildsu Skr. aglasnu ' healthy.* 
Without svarabhakti kleso ' sin.' 

30) For / after labials cp. 

pilavo Skr. plava ' a kind of duck ' ; pihakam Skr. pllhan 

* spleen * ; piluvati and plavati Skr. y/^\\x ' to float * ; plavo 
Skr. plava * a raft.* 

ambilo Skr. amla 'sour*; milakkho Skr. mleccha 'stranger.* 

31) After r, / is assimilated in dullabho Skr. durlabha. 

32) For I after sibilants cp. 

siloko Skr. 9loka ' stanza ' ; sileaumo semho Skr. 9leshman 
' phlegm ' ; silittho Skr. 9lishta * adhering * ; sildgha Skr. 
9lagha * praise ' ; asilesd Skr. a9le8ha ' name of a lunar 
mansion.* 

33) For h + l cp. hilddati, hilddo, hilito Skr. ^lilad 'to 
be glad.* 

.2 



18 PALI GRAMMAR. 

34) r, in conjunction with gutturals in the middle of a 
word is assimilated : thus pnkko Skr. pakva 'cooked.' In the 
beginning of a word, kathito Skr. y^kvath ' boiled.* 

35) For V after palatals op. jaldti * to blaze,' and the 
intensive daddallati Skr. jajvalyati. 

36) V after cerebral: kinnam Skr. kinva ' yeast.' 

37) t? AFTER DENTALS. 

1) t-\-V'. tvam, tiivam, tarn Skr. tvam 'thou'; tarati Skr. 
v/tvar ; taco Skr. tvac 'skin, bark.' In cattdro Skr. catvaras 

* four,' and in ittaro Skr. itvara * going,' we have assimila- 
tion. In caccaro Skr. catvara *a court' v was changed into 
p, which then palatalized the t. The gerundial suffixes 
ivdna and tra are mostly preserved, but sometimes hdna 
is contracted into tuna. IriMjo Skr. rtvij 'an officiating 
priest.' 

2) d-\-v'. dlpo Skr. dvlpa 'an island'; doso Skr. dvesha 
'hatred'; saddalo Skr. 9advala 'grassy.' For Skr. dvi, as 
separate numeral, the forms dve and duve occur ; in com- 
position, however, dvi^ di, du and hd : bdrasa Skr. dvada9an 

* twelve ' ; hdvlsati Skr. dvavim9ati. 

3) dh-\-v=dh: dhajo Skr. dhvaja 'flag'; dhamseti corre- 
sponds to Skr. -v/dhvams * to fall, to perish,' and in composition 
uddhamseii ; dhani Skr. dhvani * sound ' ; addhd Skr. adhvan 
'path.' 

38) V after sibilants is mostly assimilated : 

asso Skr. a9va ' horse ' ; bhassaro Skr. bhasvara * brilliant.' 
In the beginning of a word 8V is sometimes preserved. We 
find also svarabhakti and assimilation, sdmi and suvdml Skr. 
svamin * lord.* sd Skr. 9 van ' dog,' has the following forms 
besides : aono, suno, sdno, svdno and snvdno. svannam and 
Borpiam correspond to Skr. svarna ' gold.' saggo Skr. svarga 
' heaven, paradise,* but the adjective soraggiko. are, sure Skr. 
9vas ' yesterday ' ; soithi and suratthi Skr. svasti 'health.* 

39) Through metathesis h-^v has become rh in jirhd Skr. 
jihva ' tongue ' ; savhayo Skr. sahvya ' called, named.* 

gahhharatn Skr. gahvara ' cavern.' 

40) Sibilants in conjunction with the surd letters. 
Following or preceding the surds, the sibilants are always 



SIBILANTS. 19 

assimilated ; mostly an aspiration of this combination takes 
place. 

Skr. ksh becomes kkh and cch ; some of the words exhibit 
both forms. Skr. shk and %\.=-kkh. 

1) cakkhu Skr. cakshus 'eye'; Rakkhaso Skr. Eakshasa; 
riikkJio Skr. vrksha * tree ' ; hhikkhu Skr. bhikshu ' a mendi- 
cant'; khalati Skr. v/skhal *to tumble'; khandho Skr. skandha 

* shoulder ' ; khattiyo Skr. kshatriya * member of the second 
caste ' ; khayo Skr. kshaya * decay ' ; khipati Skr, Vkshlv 

* to spit.* 

2) kacchd Skr. kaksha * a girdle ' ; kitcchi Skr. kukshi 

* belly ' ; chamd Skr. kshama * earth.' 

3) akkhi acchi Skr. akshi * eye ' ; ikko, accho, and with a 
singular assimilation iso and isso Skr. rksha * bear ' ; khuddo 
chuddho Skr. kshudra 'small'; chano khano Skr. kshana 

* moment, a festive time ' ; pakkho paccho Skr. paksha 

* a wing ' ; khuro Skr. kshura * razor ' ; cullo, culo, culo Skr. 
kshuUa * small ' ; sakkato Skr. samskrta ' Sanskrit ' ; nikko 
Skr. nishka ' a golden ornament ' ; nikkeso Skr. nishke^a 

* bald.' 

4) Skr. 9C=ecA: acchariyo Skr. accarya * wonderful ';/)accAd 
Skr. paccat ' behind ' ; vicchiko Skr. vr9cika ' a scorpion ' ; 
nicchinati Skr. ni8+ Vci 'to ascertain.' 

5) t% and ps become alike cch. 

hibhaccho Skr. bibhatsa * loathsome * ; cikicckati tikicchati 
Skr. cikitsati * to cure ' ; dicchati Skr. ditsati (desid. to 
Vda) ; macchari Skr. matsarin * selfish.' 

acchard Skr. apsaras ' a nymph ' ; lacchati Skr. lipsati 
(desid. to v/labh). 

6) 8htshth = tth: ^(//Aa^i Skr. tishthati 'to stand'; yittho Skr. 
ishtk P.P.P. to Vyaj 'to sacrifice'; attha Skr. ash tan 'eight' ; 
chattho Skr. shashtha ' sixth * ; hhattJio Skr. bhrashta * fallen ' ; 
mattho and matto Skr. mrshta ' polished ' ; hhattho and hhatto 
Skr. bhrshta' fried.' 

7) leddu * a clod of earth,' is supposed to stand for Skr. 
loshta. The modem vernaculars, however, show the forms 
lendu and leddu. 

8) Skr. st and sth are generally represented by tth. This 



20 PALI GRAMMAR. 

may optionally be cerebralized. atthi Skr. asthi 'bone*; 
atthi Skr. asti *to be'; hatthl Skr. hastin 'elephant/ and 
without aspiration atto Skr. asta * thrown.* 

9) In the beginning of a word cp. thakanam Skr. sthagana 

* covering ' ; thamhho Skr. starabho ; thdnam Skr. sthana 
' standing,' and other derivatives from Vsthji with cerebrali- 
zation ; thero Skr. sthavira * priest ' ; ihupo Skr. stQpa 

* a tope * ; thcvo and chevo * a drop,* to Skr. ^/stip, and 
perhaps chamhhati Skr. \/stambh * to amaze ' ; khdnu Skr. 
sthiinu ' stump of a tree.* 

10) In conjunction with the labials the sibilants are assimi- 
lated ; sometimes an aspiration takes place. The characters 
for /), ph being very much alike in Siamese, Burmese and 
Sinhalese MSS., it is very difficult to say if this is more than 
graphic. 

11) phasso Skr. spar^a 'touch'; phusati Skr. y/^VT9 '^ 
touch' ; puppliam Skr. pushpa 'flower'; by the side of pupphiio 
a form phitssito occurs, both going back to Skr. pushpita 
'flowering.' 

12) happo Skr. vashpa * a tear ' ; apphotd Skr. asphota 
'jasmine'; nippapo Skr. nishpapa 'free from sin'; nippaco 
Skr. nishpava * winnowing, clearing * ; mpphddanam * ac- 
complishment,* to nipajjati Skr. nis+Vpad; nij^phalo Skr. 
nishphala * fruitless.' 

41) Groups of nasals with sibilants following are treated in 
difierent ways : 1) The group is preserved intact ; 2) be- 
tween the sibilant and the nasal a vowel is inserted ; 3) the 
sibilant is changed to A, and metathesis takes place. In the 
beginning of a word assimilation may take place. 

In several instances a word appears under more than one form. 

1) sineho sneho Skr. sneha ' friendship ' ; nisneho * without 
love * ; sindnam nahdnam Skr. sniina ' bathing ' ; siniddho 
niddho Skr. snigdha * oily ' ; snnhd smiim husd Skr. snushu 
' sister-in-law ' ; Sineru Neru Mem Sumeru probably belong 
together, and point to a form Sneru. 

2) panhi Skr. pr9ni ' variegated ' ; pmiho Skr. pra9na 
' question ' ; tajihd tasind Skr. trshna * lust ' ; kanho kasino 
Skr. krshna ' black ' ; unho Skr. ushna ' hot.' 



SANDHI. 21 

3) aitam mihitam Skr. smita * smile ' ; massu Skr. 9ma9ru 

* beard ' ; gimho Skr. grishma ' summer ' ; asmd am/id Skr. 
agman 'stone'; semho silesumo Skr. gleshman 'phlegm'; rasmi 
ramsi Skr. ra9rai * a ray of light ' ; ramsimd Skr. ra9mimat 

* radiant ' ; apamdro apasmdro Skr. apasmara * epilepsy.' 

4) In the oblique case of the pronoun sm is optionally 
changed into mh, and thus also in the form of the^ verb, 
subst. anihi asmi amlie asme. 

42) In combination with nasals, h shows svarabhakti or 
metathesis. 

ganhati Skr. grhnati ' to grasp ' ; hanute hnute Skr. hnute 
'to conceal oneself' ; cihanam cinham Skr. cihnana 'mark, 
sign * ; jimho Skr. jihma * crooked.' 

43) Groups of three or more consonants are treated like 
those consisting only of two. Assimilation takes place, in 
some instances svarabhakti. 

uddham uhhham Skr. urdhvam ' upwards.' The repre- 
sentation is, of course, due to the different assimilation which 
took place ; just as in disvd, and less frequently datt/iu, for 
Skr. drshtva v'dr9; uddhumdyati (pass.) Skr. ud+\/<ihma 'to 
be blown up ' ; tikkino tikklio tinho Skr. tikshna * sharp ' ; 
sanho Skr. 9lak8hna * smooth ' ; jiinhd dosino Skr. jyotsna 
' moonlight ' ; kasino Skr. krtsna * entire ' ; satti Skr. 9astri 
'knife'; idattat/am=.idam-\-frai/a; lacchati Skr. lapsyati fut. to 
\/lahh ; checchati fut. to chindati Skr. -v/chid * to cut ' ; macco 
Skr. martya ' mortal ' ; maccho Skr. matsya ' fish ' ; alio Skr. 
adra 'wet'; vatumam vattam Skr. vartman; itthi itthi thl Skr. 
strl ' woman.' 

44) Three consonants are only allowed in conjunction with 
the semivowels. 

15. SANDHI.1 

In the preceding paragraphs the phonetic changes which 
take place in the midst of a word have been considered. 
It remains now to be seen what changes take place in the 

> Cpr. On Sandhi in Pall by the late R. C. Childen, Journal Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1879. 



22 PALI GRAMMAR. 

sentence. None of the Sandhi rules known from Sanskrit 
grammar as imperative are so in Pali. We have of course 
only to deal with external Sandhi in Pali, as internal Sandhi 
has been treated under the heading of phonetic changes, to 
which it properly belongs. 

In prose the MSS. differ greatly in the use of Sandhi, and 
whilst, for instance, Burmese and Siamese MSS. prefer 
writing khvdham, the Singhalese MSS. separate the words 
into kho aham. In verse Sandhi of course takes place 
according to the exigencies of the metre. Later texts, such 
as ""the Dipavamsa, take great liberties, omitting whole 
syllables, etc. 

The following tables will show the most frequent changes 
that occur : 

VOWEL SANDHI. 

VOWELS IN COMBINATION VHTH VOWELS. 

a+a=:id'. ndhosi=na ahosi. 

a+a+coNjUNCT coNSONANT=a : na 'tthi=na atthi; pana 
annam=:pan' annam. 

flf4-fl+ CONJUNCT CONSONANT =d : ndssa=na assa. 

a before a is rarely elided. Such elision generally takes 
place before aham * 1/ ai/am * this,' and the forms of the 
verb atthi * to be.* 

d-\-h=d: taddyam=tadd ayam ; iaddsi=tadd dai. 

d-{-i=:e: bandhuss 'eva=.bandhussa ica. 

d + ^ = : nopetizn na upeti. 

a + iti=. d : Tissdti vacancna = Tissa Hi. 

a-\-piz=. dpi : ajjdpi = ajja. 

d + M=u : cubhayam-=.ca ubhayam ; tadup(f = tadd upa- 
sammanti. 

a-{-i=d (elision of i): yena *me=yena ime. This elision 
seems only to take place in case of the pronoun idam. 

a+t or M= or w (elision of a) : pahdy* imam=pahdya imam ; 
tatr' idam-=tat)'a idam; yass* indriydnznyassa indriydnii; ten* 
upa8ankami= fena upasahkami. 



VOWEL 8ANDHI. 23 

a is elided before d u e o: yen* di/asmd ; uithdi/* dsand ; idh* 
dcuso; eken* uno-=.ekena um\ netv' ekamantikam \ o* etarahi 
tass' okdsam. 

d sometimes elides a short vowel, and less often a long 
vowel other than d : disvd 'panissayam for diavd upan ; sided 
*va for sutvd eva. 

d is often elided before a long vowel or a short followed 
by a conjunct consonant : tath' eva=.tathd\ netv* ekamantikam 
eva=neti'd ek. 

d-|-i=e in seyyathldam=.seyyathd idam and saddhidhdzs, 
saddhd idhd. 

% is elided before short or long vowels : gacchdm* aham 
gacchdmi a ; p' ajja=-pi ajja ; dasah' upagatam-=dasahi upa. 

i is elided in timh' a^sa=.tmihi assa. 

+t=l: in combinations with iti: samanUdha=.8amantiidha. 

i-\-a=.a : kihcdp)i=.kinci api (more frequently kiticid apt). 

i preceded by t or tt and followed by a vowel becomes fy: 
jlcanty elaka ; ty ayam ti ayam. The examples are from 
late Pali works, and are perhaps doubtful. 

itl-\-ecam: ity evam, but also according to the rules after 
which iy h palatalized ice evam, and thus di=jj ; api=app, 
etc., as pointed out above, 14, and ifv evam. 

u is elided before a vowel: samef dyasmd=sametu d; sadh* 
dvuso=-sadhu \ tusites' upapajjat/iaz=tusitesu upa. 

u-\-i=.u~^ sadhuti=.sadhu iti; kitnsudha=-kimsu-\-idha. 
5efore a vowel changes into v. The examples are 
doubtful : vatthv* eva-=vatthu eva. 

e may be elided before a long vowel: w' d8i=me dsi; stlavant* 
ettha-=.sllavanto ettha. 

e sometimes elides a following vowel: te 'me=^te ime; sace 
'jja=ajj'a. 

e+a=.d : sacdham = sace + ahaip . 

e-\ra=jyi the a being lengthened: tydham=.te aham. After 

louWe consonant lengthening takes place arbitrarily. 

often elides a following vowel: so '/iam=.so aham ; pattiko 
*vaz=eva; kattahbo' posathe=.k upo. 

is elided before a vowel : kuV eUha=kufo ettha \ katam' 
assa^^katamo assa. 



24 PALI GRAMMAR. 

o+a=d: duJikhAyamdukkho ayam. 

o+a=r, the a being lengthened: 8vdham=-80 afiam; khvd' 
ham=.kho aham. After a double consonant lengthening takes 
place arbitrarily. 

becomes v before a long vowel. 

16. EUPHONIC CHANGES. 

1) If a word ending in d, is followed by idam, or one of its 
oblique cases, y is inserted : na yklam, na-y-iinassa. 

2) iva after words ending in vowels or nasal vowels 
becomes viya sometimes : e.g. kim v'uja like what. 

3) V is inserted if a vowel is followed by u or u. 

4) eva becomes yeva after words ending in vowels or nasal 
vowels. 

6) m is inserted between two vowels : idha-m dhu:=idha 
dhu; jeyya-m attdnam=jeyya atf\ idha-m-ijjhati, giri-m-iva. 

6) r is inserted when a word ending in a vowel is followed 
by a word commencing with a vowel: dhiratthu and vijjur eva. 

7) d\a inserted in sammad eva, anvad eva, satthud anvayo. 
These consonants have been inserted according 

to false analogy. 

8) A few instances occur of the original consonant reappear- 
ing which, according to the phonetic rules in Pali 
should be omitted. 

manasdd atmavimxittdnam-=mana8d \ yasmdd apeti (and so 
in Sanskrit) ; tasmdd eva=ta8md; kenacid eva; ahud eva (Skr. 
abhud eva) ; puthag eva (Skr. prthag eva) ; pageva (Skr. 
prageva) ; tunhltn dslnam (Skr. tushnim) ; vuttir esd (Skr. 
vrttir esha) ; sahhhir eva (Skr. sadbhir eva) ; pathavi dhdtur 
eva=dhdtu eva (Skr. dhiitur eva) ; punar eva=puna eva (Skr. 
punar eva) ; hhattur atthe=hhattu atthe (Skr. bhartur arthe) ; 
chal eva (Skr. shad eva). 

9) The niooahTta stands sometimes for an original final 
consonant. This can be replaced by an original consonant 
before vowels : sakim stands for Skr. sakrt, and before eva it 
becomes aakid eva, in accordance with Sanskrit. 

10) The same is the case with tarn yam etam, which stand 



/ 



DECLENSION. 26 

for tad yad etad respectively, and appear in this shape before 
vowels : tad eva ; etad avoca. 

11) Owing to false analogy, wrong consonants sometimes 
appear by the side of the right : punam eva for punar, artnad 
atthu for annam, hahud eva for hahur. 

12) Original double consonants which are assimilated are 
sometimes after vowels doubled. 

13) In verse the niggahTta is elided before a consonant : 
no ce muhceyya candimam for munceyyam ; maccdna jlvitam 
for maccdnam ; etam huddhdna sdsanam for buddhdnam sds. 

14) Sometimes the nasal vowel 4*ntirely elided : im* etam 
z=.imam etamy^mp ajf aha m =. nipajjim aham, 

am-\-a=a: ekam iddham samayam; ekam idam aham; 
evdyam=evam ay am. 

15) If a word ends in niggahTta and a consonant follows, 
it may be changed to the nasal of that class to which the con- 
sonant belongs: tn-\-k-=nk, m-\-c:=nc, m=^tz=nt, m-\-t=-nt, 
m-\-p'=^mp. 

16) A word ending in the niggahTta, followed by a word 
beginning with y, becomes nn : tarn yeva=.tanneva ; dnantari- 
kannam. 

17) The niggahTta before h optionally becomes n : evanhi. 



17. DECLENSION. 

1) We have drawn attention in the chapter on Phonetics 
to the fact that Pali only allows vowels and nasalized vowels 
at the end of a word. Through this law the shape of a word 
is considerably altered. Roughly speaking, vowels are either 
substituted at the end of a word, or those consonants which 
would impede the action of this law are dropped. A con- 
sequence of this process is, that, although the essential 
features of the various Sanskrit declensions are preserved, 
no declension has kept within its proper range. 

2) The nominative case as a prototype case has influenced 
the other cases, and since stems e.g. ending in as or a alike 



26 PALI GRAMMAR. 

form the nominative case in o, the as and a declension follow 
respectively the analogy of the as or o declension. 

3) Besides this the influence of the declension of the 
pronouns on the declension of nouns has to be noticed, 
and vice vend. 

4) Pali distinguishes three genders : masculine, feminine 
and neuter, two numbers singular and plural, and, including 
the vocative, eight cases. In the declension of neuter nouns 
and of pronouns some traces of an old dual are to be found, 
which will be noticed hereafter ; but practically speaking 
the dual is extinct. 

5) The Piili grammarians recognize six case relations, 
which by their name indicate the functions of the cases. 
The nominative and vocative cases are of course omitted in 
this enumeration. 

6) The nominative case is simply called the first case 
(pathamd). It simply expresses the subject. It is sometimes 
used instead of the vocative, which latter is called the 
alapanam * the addressing case.* 

7) The names given respectively to the other cases to 
show their relation {karakam) are : 

kammam accusative. 

karanam instrumental. 

sampaddnam dative. 

apdddnam ablative. 

sdmi genitive. 

okdso or ddhdro locative. 

Other terms are : for the accusative upai/ogo, for the ablative 
nissakko, and for the locative hhummo. 

USES OF THE CASES. 

I) The relation of the Accusative (kammam). The 
accusative is used as the case of the direct object of a 
transitive verb. The transitive verba have a somewhat 
wider range in all the Indian languages than in the related 
ones, and so we find an accusative as the goal of motion 



USES OF THE CASES. 27 

with verbs of * going/ * bringing,* * sending/ etc. Vihdram 

gantid * having gone to the monastery/ 

Verbs of peaking may follow the same rule. Tarn rdjd 

idam abruii ' the king said this to him.* 

The accusative is further used to denote space traversed 

and duration of time. Patindsa yajandni gacchati ' he marches 

fifty yojanas.* 

It is used with verbs signifying to have recourse, to appear, 

to ask. Buddham saranam gacchdmi ' I take my refuge in 

the Buddha.* 

Causative verbs have a double accusative. Updsakam mam 

hhavam Gotamo dhdretu 'let the lord Gotama receive me as 

a disciple.* 

The accusative is used with the following prepositions : 
pati : Sangamam pati pihd * longing for union.* 

pari : rukkham pari * in the direction of the tree.* 

anu : arm Sdriputtam pannavd hhikkhu * a priest 

inferior to S. in learning.* 
anto,antara: antara vUhim olokayamdno 'looking down into 

the street.' 
abhi abhito: abhito gdmam 'round the village.' 
tiro : tiro bhdvam gacchati * he goes out of sight.* 

II) The relation of the Instrumental (karanam). 
The instrumental denotes adjacency, accompaniment, 

association, and of course, instrumentality. All the uses 

of this case may be derived from its original meaning. 

We notice particularly the use made of the instrumental 

to denote 1) equality, likeness, accordance, default : 

Rdgena samo aggi ndma natthi * there is no fire like lust/ 
akkhind kdno * blind of one eye.* 

2) the space traversed and duration of time : 
nabhasd gacchati ' he goes through air.' 

3) the construction of a passive verb or participle : 
evam me mtam ' thus it was heard by me.' 

4) the prepositions aaha saddhim vind, though generally used 
with the instrumental, are also found with other cases : 

Saha gabbhena jiiitakkhayam pdpunissdmi ' I shall perish 
together with my unborn child * ; Mahatd bhikkhu'Sahg/ieiia 



28 PALI GRAMMAR. 

saddhim * with a great company of priests ' ; vind dosena 
* without any fault.* 

Ill) The relation of the Dative (sampaddnam) [effect- 
ing case]. The case of the indirect object. It is used to 
denote objects * to, towards, for, at, against,' which, anything 
is done or intended. 

It is used, therefore, with words signifying 

1) give, share out, and assign : Maggam dehi rahno ' make 
room for the king.' 

2) Show, announce, declare : tasaa abruvi ' said to him * ; 
tut/ham avikaromi * I will explain thee.* 

3) Give attention, have a regard or feeling, inclination, 
obeisance : Bhavato bhaddam hotu ' may good happen to the 
lord.* 

4) In an infinitive sense : lokdnukampdya ' out of pity to 
the world.' 

lY) The ablative relation (apdddnam). The 'from' 
case. It is used to denote removal, distinction, separation, 
issue, deprival, restraint: mdtito sudd/io '.pure on the mother's 
side ; ' avijfd paccayd sahkhdrd. 

As special applications, we notice 

1) the ablative after words expressing fear in interchange 
with the genitive : Sahbe bhdyanti maccuno or maccund ' all 
fear death.' 

2) the ablative of distinction: yato panitataro id vaaitthataro 
vd natthi 'than whom there is none better or more ac- 
complished.' Also in interchange with the genitive and 
instrumental. 

The ablative is used with the prepositions and adverbs 
implying the notion of distance, removal, such as dra * far 
off'; purd * formerly,' which are ablatives according to their 
formation : drd so dsavakkhayd * he is far from the extinction 
of passion* ; t<u%a dgamand purd * before his arriving.* 

V) The genitive relation [sdmi]. The case relation is 
an adjectival one, out of which all other uses arise. 

It is to a great extent interchangeable with IV) the 
locative [okd8o]y the * in' case. 

Thus we find a locative and genitive absolutely employed : 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 29 

rudato ddrakassa or rudantasmim darake ' whilst the child 
was crying ' ; Evam vutfe ' having said thus.' 

In connection with verbs and substantives denoting either 
possession or dominion, either the genitive or locative is used. 

The locative is used interchangeably with the accusative, 
instrumental, dative, and ablative. 

Among prepositional uses of the locative we notice upa and 
adhi having respectively the sense of inferior and superior to. 
Upa khdriyam dono ' a drona is inferior to a kharl ' ; adhi 
devesu Buddho * Buddha is superior to the gods.* 

In interchange with the instrumental, the locative is used , 
with adjectives of the sense of satisfied, eager, zealous. 

I. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

"We shall now give the paradigms for the different 
declensions, of which we make two divisions. 

I. Stems in vowels. 

II. Stems in consonants. 

We shall mark those forms which belong to the pro- 
nominal declension with f, those which are taken from 
another declension with *, obsolete forms with :{:. 

STEMS IN YOWELS. 

Masculine and Neuters in a. 

Dhamma. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Nom. dhammo dhamma J dhammase 

Voc. dhamma dhammd dhamma 

Ace. dhammam dhamme 

Instr. dhammena vinaycL dhammehhi dhammehi 

Dat. dhamtndya * dhammassa dhammdnam 

Abl. dhammd fdhammasmd 

t dhammamhd dhamynebhi dhammehi 

Gen. dhammassa dhammdnam 
Loc. dhamme f dhammasmhn 

fdhammamhi dhammcsu 



\ 



30 


PALI GRAMMAR. 

Neuters in a. 
Citta. 






8IM0VLAB. 


PI.UBAL. 


Nom. 


\ 


cittdni X ^i^^^ * citte 


Voc. 


cittam 


cittdni 


Ace. 


) 


cittani X ^^^^^ 


Instr, 


citiena 


cittehhi cittehi 


Dat. 


dttdya cittasm 


cittdnam 


Abl. 


cittd t ciltasma t cittamha 


cittehhi cittehi 


Gen. 


cittassa 


cittdnam 


Loc. 


citte t cittasmim cittamhi 


ciftesu 



The forms of this declension correspond more to those of 
Vedic Sanskrit than those of classical Sanskrit. 

Cp. instr. sing. yajTid ; pi. nom. devdsas ; pi. nom. neut. 
pugd; pi. instr. devebhis. Is the form citte an old dual neuter? 

Feminine Stems in a. 





Kamid 


. 


SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. kanfid 




kamid * kanhdyo 


Voc. kufine 




kamid * kamidyo 


Ace. hahnam 




kamid * kamidyo 


Instr. hamidya 




kamidhhi kamidhi 


Dat. kamidya 




kamidnam 


Abl. kauhdya 




kamidbhi kanndhi 


Gen. kamidya 




kamidnam 


Loc. kamidyam 


* kamidya 


kahhdm 


The voc. sing, of 


ammd 'mother' is given as amma and 


ammd. 








Masculines 


in *. 




Aggi. 




SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Nora, aggi 




aggayo aggiyo * aggi 


Voc. aggi 




aggayo aggiyo aggi 


Ace. aggim 




aggi * aggayo * aggiyo 


Instr. aggind 




agglhhi aggihi 



Dat. 



aggino ^aggtssa 



agglnam 



STEMS IN VOWELS. 



31 



SIN'OVLAB. 



Ahl. * oggind faggimhd f aggismd aggibhi agglhi 
Gen. * aggino * aggissa agglnam 

Loc. aggini faggimhi faggismim agglsu 

The voc. sing, of isi * a sage ' occurs as uy corresponding 
to Sanskrit rshe. 

From muni *a recluse' the loc. sing, occurs as mune. 

Of ddi ' starting-point ' the following locative sing, forms 
occur : 

ado, ddu corresponding both to Skr. adau, * ddim f ddiinhi 
f ddismim. 

The neuters in i follow the declension of those in in. As 
paradigm aithi * a bone ' will be given. 







Feminines in I. 






Ratti. 


SINOTTLAB. 




Nom. 


ratti 




Voc. 


ratti 




Ace. 


rattim 




Instr. 


rattiyd 




Dat. 


rattiyd 




Abl. 


rattiyd 




Gen. 


rattiyd 




Loc. 


rattiyam 


\ * rattiyd 



* ratti 

* ratti 

* 



rattlyo 



raiilhi 



PLinEUL. 

rattlyo 
rattlyo 
ratti 
rattibhi 
rattlnam 
rattibhi 
rattlnam 
%ratto rattim 

Instead of the forms of the instr. sing, in iyd, yd occurs, 
corresponding to Sanskrit. This unites with the preceding 
consonant, and palatalizes the same arbitrarily ; 
matyd santyd for matiyd santiyd 
jaccd najjd for Jdtiya nadiyd 
A palatalization occurs in conjunction with other forms. 
The paradigm of nadt ' river * will show the declension. 



Nom. nadi 

Voc. nadl 

Ace. nadim 

Instr. nadiyd nadyd najjd 



nadiyo * najjo * nadl 

nadiyo * najjo * nadi 

nadi * nadiyo J naj/e. 

nadihhi nadihi * najjo 



32 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



Dat. 
Abl. 
Gen. 
Loc. 



SINGULAR. 

nadiyd nadyd 



najja 



PLIRAL. 

nadlnam 
nadlhhi nadihi 
nadlnam 
nadlsu 



nadiyani nadiyd najjam 
The loc. sing, of Bdmmsl is given as Bdrdnasim. 
itthi, thl * a woman/ corresponding to Skr. strl, shows the 
following forms : 



SINGULAR. 

Nom. itthi 

Voc. 

Ace. 

Instr. 

Dat. 

Abl. 

Gen. 

Loc. 



itihl 

itthim 

itthiyd 

itthiyd 

itthiyd 

itthiyd 

itthiyam 



thl itthlyo 

thl itthlyo 

itthiyam itthi 

thiyam itthlbhi 

thiyam itthinam 

thiyam itthlbhi 

thiyam itthinam 

itthiyd itthlsu 

Declension in u. 
Bhikkhu. 



PLURAL. 

thiyo 

thiyo 

* itthlyo 

itthlhi 

thlnam 

itthlhi 

thlnam 

thlsu 



* itthi 

* itthi 



Nom. 
Yoc. 



Ace. 

Instr. 

Dat. 

Abl. 



SINGULAR. 

bhikkhu 
bhikkhu 

bhikkhiim 
bhikkhund 
* bhikkhuno 
bhikkhuno 



bhikkhavo * bhikkhu 
bhikkhavo bhikkhave 

* bhikkhu 
bhikkhu * bhikkhavo 
bhikkhuhi bhikkhubhi 
bhikkhunam 
bhikkhubhi bhikkhuhi 



* bhikkhussa 
t bhikkhusmd 
t bhikkhumhd 
Gen. bhikkhuno * bhikkhussa bhikkhunam 

Loc. t bhikkhusmim f bhikkhumhi bhikkhusu bhikkhusu 

We have in adverbial use the gen. sing, heto and hetu from 
hetu. 

The influence of other declensions we find in such forms as 
nom, plur. oi jantu and hetu : jantuyo jantuno, hctuyo hetuno. 
Masculines in u agree with those in m, showing the long u 
in the nom. voc. ace. plur. In those forms we have also 
formations according to other declensions, e.g. : 
sabbatmu : sabbammno 
abhibhu : abhibhuvo abhibhuno 



STEMS IN CONSONANTS. 



33 



Neuters in u form their nom. ace. plur. either in u or uni. 
The form of the aco. sing, in m is also used for the nomi- 
native. 

Feminines in &. 
Jamhu. 



8INOULAB. 


PLCRAL. 


Nom. 


jamhA 


jamhhjo * jamhu 


Voc. 


Jamhu 


jamhAyo * jamhu 


Ace. 


jamhiim 


jamhu *jamhuyo 


Instr. 


jamhuyd 


jamhuhhi jamhuhi 


Dat. 


jambuya 


jamhunam 


Abl. 


jamhuyd 


jamhuhhi jamhuhi 


Gen. 


jamhuyd 


jamhunam 


Loc. 


jamhuyam jamhuyd 


jamhum 



The loe. of bhu is hhuvi adverbially used. 

Of crude forms ending in Sanskrit in diphthongs we find 
only go ' a cow.' 

SINOULAB. 

Nom. go 

Voc. go 

Ace. gam *gavam *gavum *gdvam 

Instr. X ga id * gd vena 

Dat. gdvassa 

Abl. gdvd fgdi'asmd fgdvamha 

Gen. *gdvassa 

Loe. gdve fgdvamhi fgdvasmim 

The influence of the ace. sing, 
of the diphthongal conjugation in other declensions, e.g. ace. 
sing. Skr. niyam from rai, Pali rdyo * wealth ' ; ace. sing. 
Skr. navam from nau, Pali ndvd * a ship.' 



PLURAL. 

gdvo 

gdro 

*gdvo 

gobhi gohi 

gavam *gunnam *gonam 

gobhi gohi 

gavam *giinnam *gonam 

gosu *gdvesu 

has effected a transition 





II. STEMS IN CONSONANTS. 




Stems in ar, Skr. r. 




Satthd * teacher.' 




8IK0VLAR. PLURAL. 


Nom. 


mtthd satthdro 


Voc. 


satthd sattha satthdro 



34 TALI GRAMMAR. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Acc. aatthdram satthare *8atthd.ro 

Instr. aatthard * satthund * aatthdrd satthdrebhi satthdrehi 
Dat. safthtt * satthmsa satthanam * satthdnam 

* satthuno * mtthdrdnam 

Abl. sat (hard mtthdrd sattharehhi * satthdrebhi 

Gen. satthu satthiissa aatthatiam * satthdrdnam 

* satthdnam 
Loc. satthari sattharesu *satthdresu 

With the declension of satthd, that of pita nearly agrees. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Nom. pita pitaro 

Voc. pitd pita pitaro 

Acc. pitaram pitare * pitaro 

Instr. pitard *pitund pituhhi *pituhi pitarehhi 

Dat. pitu *pitu8sa *pituno pitunnam pitHnam pitdnam 

*pitardnam 
pituhhi *pituhi *pitarehhi 

*pitareh,i 
pitunnam pitunam pitdnam 

*pitardnam 
pitusu *pitusu *pitare8u 



Abl. 


pitu *pitard 


Gen. 


pitu *pitu8sa *pituno 


Loc. 


pitari 




Mdtd 




SINGULAR. 


Nom. 


mdtd 


Voc. 


mdta *mdtd 


Acc. 


mdtaram 



PLURAL. 

mdtaro 
mdtaro 

mdtare * mdtaro 
Instr. mdtard*mdtuya*mdtyd mdtubhi *matubhi *mdtarehhi 
Dat. mdtu *mdtuya * mat yd mdtunam *mdtunam mdtdnam 

* mdtardnam 

Abl. mdtard*mdtuyd*matyd mdtubhi * mdtubhi *mdtarebhi 
Gen. mdtu *mdtuyd *matyd mdtunam * mdtunam mdtdnam 

* mdtardnam 

Loc. mdtari * mdtuyarn mdt- mdtusu * mdtmu * mdtdresu 
yam *mdtuyd *mdtyd 

As an appendix to the declension in ar, it will perhaps be 
best to give the declension of aakhd * a friend.' 



STEMS IN CONSONANTS. 



35 



The word corresponds to the Skr. sakhi, which shows an 
irregular declension. The same irregularities we find also in 
Piili, and besides this we find the influence of other de- 
clensions. The forms are not marked. 



SCrOULAK. 



Nom. sakhd 

Voc. sakhe sakhi sakhl sakhd sakha 

Ace. sakhdram sakhdyam sakhdnam sakham 

Instr. sakhind 

Dat. sakhissa sakhino 

Abl. sakhind 

Gen. sakhissa sakhino 

Loc. sakhe 



Nom. sakhdyo sakhino 

Voc. sakhdyo sakhino 

Ace. sakhl sakhino 



sakhdno 
sakhdno 
sakhdyo sakhdno 



Instr. sakharehi sakhdrehhi sakhehi 

Dat. sakhinam sakhdrdnam 

Abl. sakharehi sakhdrehhi sakhehi 

Gen. sakhardnflm sakhdrdnam sakhinam 

Loc. sakkhdresu sakkhesu 



II. Stems in Nasals. 





1) in an. 








Atfan 'self.' 








SmOULAR. 


ThVVJiL. 




Nom. 


attd 


attdno 




Voc. 


atta *attd 


attdno 




Ace. 


attdnam *attanam *attam 


attano 


* attdno 


Instr. 


attand * attena 


*attanebhi 


*attebhi 


Dat. 


attano 


attanam 


* attdnam 


Abl. 


attand fattasmd 


*attanehhi 


*attebhi 


Gen. 


attano 


attanam 


* attdnam 



Loc. attani fattasmim attamhi attanesu 



36 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



The form tltumd is of comparatively rare occurrence. We 
find : Ace. sing, dtumdnam 

Nom. ace. plur. dtum&no 
Gen. and dat. plur. dtumdnam. 

Brahman. 





BlNOfLAJ 


I. 


PLIHAI,. 


Nom. 


brahmd 




hrahmdno 


Voc. 


hrahme 




hrnhmdno 


Ace. 


hrahmdnam 


* hrahmam 


hrahmano * hrahmdno 


Instr. 


hrahmttnd 


hrahmand 


* hrahmehhi 


Dat. 


hrahmuno 


* hrahmassa 


hrahmunam * hrahmdnam 


Abl. 


hrahmund 


hrahmand 


hrahmehhi 




t hrahmasmd 




Gen. 


hrahmuno 


* hrahmassa 


hrahmunam * hrahmdnam 


Loc. 


hrahmuni 


hrahmam 


* hrahmesu 




\hrahmasmim 








Rdjan * king.* 




BINOrLAR. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. 


rdjd 





rdjd no 


Voc. 


raja * rdjd 


rdjdno 


Ace. 


rdjdnam *rdjam 


rdjano * rdjdno 


Instr. 


rahhd rdjina *rdjena 


rdjubld *rdjuhhi *rdjehhi 


Dat. 


rarim rdjino *rdja8sa 


ramam rdjunam * rdjdnam 


Abl. 


rawid t rdjamha 


rdjuhhi *rdjuhhi *rdjehhi 


Gen. 


ranno rdjino rq/assa 


rafiiiafn rcyunam * rdjdnam 


Loc. 


rdjini rantii *ranm 


rq/usu *rdjusu *rqfe8U 






Yucan 'young.' 






SIXGVI.AU. 


Nom. 


yard 






Voc. 


yuva 


yuvd 


*yurdna *yuvdnd 


Ace. 


yuednatn 


* yucam 




Instr. 


Xyund 


*yuvdnd 


* yuvena * yuvanena 


Dat. 


tyuno 


*yuvdna.'isa 


*yuvassa 


Abl. 


Xyuno 


*yucdnd 


fyuvanasma 


Gen. 


ty&no 


*yutas8a 


*yuvdna88a 


Loc. 


yuve 


yuci 


fyuvamhi fyuvasmim 




j/urdne 


fyuranasnn'm 



STEMS IN CONSONANTS. 



37 





PLGRAI. 






Nom 


1. yuvdno 


* yuvdnd 




Voc. 


yuvdnd 






Ace. 


yuve 


*yuvdne 


* yuvdnd 


Instr. yuvdnehi 


yuvehi 




Dat. 


yuvdndnam 


yuvdnam 




Abl. 


yuvdnehi 


yuvehi 




Gen. 


yuvdndnam 


yuvdnam 




Loc. 


yuvdnesu 


yuvdsu 


yuveau 




8d' 


dog.' 




SINOUT.AR. 




PLUHAl. 


Nom. 


sd 




sdno *8d 


Voc. 


sd 




sdno 8d 


Ace. 


sdnam *sam 




aano *8dno 


Instr. 


sund sand 


*send 


sdhhi 


Dat. 


*sdya *sassa 




sdnam 


Abl. 


sd t sasfnd 


t samhd 


sdhhi 


Gen. 


*sassa 




sdnam 


Loc. 


se fsasmim \samhi 


sdsu 



'sa "'se 



Besides this, the following forms occur, and are declined 
as if belonging to the first declension : 

sono mno svdno and suvdno. The fem. is sonl. 







Pumd \_puma7i]. 






SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. 


pumd 




pumdno 


Voc. 


pumam 


pumd 


pumdno 


Ace. 


pumdnam 


*pumam 


pumune pumdno 


Instr. 


pumund 


*pumdnd *pumend 


pumdnehi 


Dat. 


pumuno 


*pumassa 


pumdnam 


Abl. 


pumund 




pumdnehi 


Gen. 


pumuno 


*pumassa 


pumdnam 


Loc. 


pumane 


*pume 


pumdsu putnesu 



These paradigms have been given to show the way in 
which the an stems are treated. We find several instances 
where, according to what was said in the introduction, a 



38 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



word has only preserved a few traces of its belonging to this 
class. 

Besides the regular forms of the a declension of kammam, 
we find the instr. sing, kammund kammand, the gen. sing. 
kammuno, and the loc. kammani. 

In several instances forms of the an declension are in 
adverbial use only. 



2) Declension of Stems in mant vanf. 

SmOULAR UASC. SmOULAB NBTTT. 

Nom. gnnavd *gunavanto gunavam 

Voc. gunavam *gimard *gunava 

Ace. gunavantam * gunavam gunavam 

Instr. gunavatd * gwiavantena 

Dat. gunavato * gunavantassa gunavassa 

Abl. gunavatd 

Gen. gunavato 

Loc. gunavati 



* gunavantassa 
*gunavante 



gunavassa 
f gunavantasfnim -fgum- 
vantamhi 



Nom. ) 

Y \ gunavanto *gunavantd gunavanti gunavantam 

Ace. *gu7iavante gunavanti gunavantdni 

Instr. gunavantehhi 

Dat. gunavatam 

Abl. * gunavantehhi 

Gen. gmiavatam 

Loc. gunavantesu 

The corresponding feminine is made by adding t to either 
the strong or weak form : gunavanti or gunavati. It is then 
declined like a form l. 



* gunavantehi 

* gmiavantdnam 

* gunavantdnam 



The participles in ant are declined like those in mant, with 
the exception of the nom. sing, case, which is gaccham or 
*gacchanto. Compare further : 

Nom. sing, arahd and araham ' venerable.* 

mahd mahaw * mahanto ' great* 



STEMS IN CONSONANTS. 

San/o P.P. to atf/ii ' to be.' 
shows the following forms : 



39 





SINGULAR. 


PLVaAT.. 


Nona. 


santo 


santo 


Ace. 


santam 


sante 


Instr. 


said *santena Instr. 


and Abl. sabbhi 

*santehi 


Gen. and Dat. 


sato santassa 


satam 


Log. 


sati 

Bhavam. 

SINGULAK. 




Voc. 


bho hhonfa 




Ace. 


hhatantam hhotani 




Instr. 


hhavafd bhotd 


bhavantena 


Gen. and Dat. hhavato hhoto 


bhavantassa 


Abl. 


bhavatd bhotd 

PLURAL. 




Nom. 


bhavanto bhonto 


bhavantd 


Voc. 


bhavanto bhonto 


bhante 


Ace. 


bhavante bhonte 





The fern, appears under the forms of : 

bhavatl bhavanti bhoti Fern. nom. plur. bhotiyo 

3) Stems in in. 

In this declension several stems have been combined in 
one system. 





SINOXTLAR. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. 


dandl 




dandino 


* dan^i 


Voc. 


dandi 




dandino 


* dandi 


Ace. 


dandinam dandim 




* dandino 


dandi 


Instr. 


dandind *datidind 




dandibhi 


* dandibhi 


Dat. 


dandino *dandlno 


* dandissa 


dandinam 


* dandinam 


Abl. 


damlind f dandismd f dandimhd 


dan/libhi 


*dandihi 


Gen. 


damlino * dandino 


* dandissa 


dandinam 


* dandinam 


Loc. 


dandini *dandlni 


t daiidimhi 


dandisH 


*dandisu 


The short vowel in the 


oblique cases of the pli 


irul appears 



40 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



optionally in verses; the forms with long vowels are the 
more frequent. 

Notice nom. plur. d'lpiyo, from dipl *a panther.' [ 

The word atthi ' a bone/ corresponding to Skr. asthan and 
asthi, shows the following forms : 







8INOULAB. 




PLURAL 




Nom. 


atthi 


* atthim 




atthini 


atthi 


Voc. 


atthi 


* aft him 




atthini 


atthi 


Ace. 


atthi 


* atthim 




atthini 


atthi 


Instr. 


atthind 






atthlbhi 


atthlhi 


Dat. 


* atthino 


*atthissa 




atthlnatn 




Abl. 


atthind 


f atthi mhd 


t atthismd 


atthlbhi 


atthlhi 


Gen. 


* atthino 


* atthisso 




atthlnam 




Loc. 


atthini 


fatthimhi 


atthismim 


atthlsu 





Neuters in as and us. 
Mono (manas). 



mano 
mano 
mano 



Nom. 
Voc. 
Ace. 
Instr. manasd 
Dat. manaso 
Abl. manasd 
Gen. ma7iaso 
Loc. manasi 



' manam 

* manam 
*manasam 

* manena 
*mana88a 

* mand 

* manassa 
*mane 



'manam 



fmanamhd 



The pi. follows entirely the declension in a masc. and neut. 

From (hdmo 'strength' instr. thdmasd and gen. thdffiaso, 
by the side of thdmund and thdniuno respectively ; from tapo 
* religious austerity ' instr. fapasd and tapena. 

The comparative in po and if/t/o is declined like mano. 

Nom. sing. m. f. and n. sei/t/o, gen. seyyaso. 

Neuters in us. 
Ayu 'life.* 



snrovLAii. 
Nom. dyu *dytim 

Voc. dyu * dyu in 



PLT7RAL. 

dyuni * dyu 

uyuni * dyu 







COMPAEISON. 






SINOULAB. 




PLURAL. 




Ace. 


ayu 


* dyum 


dyuni 


*dyii 


Instr. 


dyusa 


* ay una 


*dyuhi 




Dat. 


*dyussa 


* dyuno 


*dyunam 


Xdymam 


Abl. 


dyusd 


*dyund 


*dyuhi 




Gen. 


*dyiissa 


* dyuno 


dyunam 


X ayusam 


Loc. 


dyusi 


*dyum 


* dyusu 





41 



For the different endings of the ablative sing, to can be 
substituted. This is added to the weakest form pitito abl. of 
pita ' father.' bh is interchangeable with h in the suffixes of 
the abl. and instr. plur. 

18. COMPARISON. 

The suffixes which are used to denote the comparative and 
superlative value of an adjective are : 

tara iyo and tama ittha 
e.g. pdpataro or papiyo pdpatamo and pdpittJio 
It cannot be said that these suffixes denote a comparative 
and superlative meaning. They have mostly an intensive 
value. This intensive value is shown when the two suffixes 
are united and made one 

itthatara as in e.g. pdpitthataro. 
The suffix issika is used promiscuously with tara and tama. 
There are some words with the suffixes iya and itthay which 
are attached to other adjectives from a different root, e.g. : 
vuddho ' old ' jeyyo jettho 

pasattho 'excellent' seyyo settho 



antiko 'near' 


nediyo 


nedittho 


hdlho 'strong* 


sddhiyo 


sddhittho 


appo 'small' \ 
yuvd ' young ' ) 


kaniyo 


kaniltho 


The themes in vat and mat drop of course this termination 


before affixing iyo ittho. 






gunavd ' excellent * 


gujiiyo 


gunittho 


satimd ' thoughtful ' 


satiyo 


satitt/io 


dhittimd ' courageous ' 


dhitiyo 


dhitittho 


rUpacd ' beautiful ' 


rupiyo 


rupittho 



43 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



II. DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. 
1) Personal Pronouns. 







Ist Person. 








tnyovT.AR. 




PLURAL. 




Nom. 


aham 




mayam 


amhe 




Ace. 


mam mamam 




amhe 


amhdkam 


Instr. 


mayd 




amhehi 






Dat. 


mat/ham mama 


mamam 


amham 


amhdkam asmd- 




amham 




kam 






Abl. 


mayd 




amhehi 


asmd 




Gen. 


mama mayham 
amham 


mamam 


amham 
kam 


arnhdl 


cam asmd- 


Loc. 


mayi 




amhesu 


asmdsu 


Enclitic forms are : 












me for the instr. dat. and 


gen. sing. 








no for the aee. dat. and gen. plur. 










2nd Person. 








SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 




Nom. 


tvam tuvam 


tarn 


tumhe 




Ace. 


tvam tuvam 


tarn 


tavam tumhe 


tumhdkam 


Instr. 


tvdya tayd 




tumhehi 




Dat. 


tuyham iava 


tumham 


tavam tumham 


tumhdkam 


Abl. 


tvayd tayd 


id 


tumhehi 




Gen. 


tuyham tava 


tumham 


tavam tumham 


tumhdkam 


Loe. 


tvayi tayi 




tumhesu 





Enclitic forms are : 

te for the instr. dat. and gen. sing., and 
vo for the aee. dat. and gen. plur. 

Pronoun of the 3ru Person. 



SIKOULAB. 




Masc. and Neut. 


Fem. 


Nom. 80 sa tarn (tad) 


8d 


Aee. tarn tarn (tad) 


tarn 


Instr. tena 


idya 



DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. 43 





BWOVLABl. 






Masc. 


. and Neut. 




Tern. 


Dat. tassa assa 


tdya 


tassd 


tassayd tissd 






tissayd assd 


Abl. tasmd tamhd asmd amhd 


tdya 






Gen. tassa 


I assa 


tdtja 


tassd 


fassayd tissd 






tissayd assd 


Loc. tasmim tamhi asmim 


tdyam tassam tissam assam 




PLURAL, 










Masc. and Neut. 




Fem. 


Nom. 


te tdni 




td 


tdyo 


Ace. 


te tdni 




td 


tdyo 


Instr. 


tehi 




tdhi 




Dat. 


iesam tesdnam 




tdsam 


tdsdnam 


Abl. 


tehi 




tdhi 




Gen. 


tesam tesdnam 




tdsam 


tdsdnam 


Loc. 


tesu 




tdsu 





In all the oblique cases of the sing, masc. and fem., and in 
all cases of the neuter sing, and plur. and of the masc. and 
fem. plur., forms beginning with n can be substituted. 

It is sometimes added pleonastically to the pronouns ahain 
and tvam, as are also all the demonstrative pronouns. It 
stands also and must be translated so sometimes for the definite 
article. 

Many of the oblique cases are used adverbially, especially 
tasmd and fena. 

The oblique cases of attd, dtitmd can be used reflexively in 
place of the three personal pronouns. 

attano dsane yeva attdnain dassesi 'showed himself too in his 
own seat.' rakkhitum sakam attdnam * to save his own life.* 

2) Demonstrative Pronouns. 

1) Eso esa efam (efad) 'this' declined like so sd sam. 

2) ayam * this ' used adjectively and substantively. 

8INOULAB. 

Masc. and Neat. Fem. 

Nom. ayam idam imam ayam 

Ace. imam idam imam 



44 



PALI ORAMMAB. 







8IM0VLAB. 








Masc. and Neat 




Fem, 




Instr. 


atiena imind 


amind 


imdt/a 




Dat. 


assa imassa 




assd assdya imissd imissd- 








ya imdya 




Abl. 


asmd imasmd 


imamhd 


imdya 




Gen. 


assa imassa 




like dat. 




Loc. 


asmim imasmim imamhi 


assam imissam imdydm 






PLURAL. 








Masc. and Neut. 




Fem. 




Nom. 


ime imdni 




imd 


imdyo 


Ace. 


ime imdni 




imd 


imdyo 


Instr. 


ehi imehi 




imdhi 


imdhhi 


Dat. 


esam esdnam imeaam imesdnam imdmm 


imdsdnam 


Abl. 


ehi emehi 




imdhi 




Gen. 


esam esdnam imesam imesdnam imdsam 


imdsdnam 


Loc. 


esu imesu 
Masc. and Neut. 


Amu. 

8INGULAE. 


imdsu 

Fem. 




Nom. asu adum 


asu 




Ace. 


amum adum 


amum 




Instr. amund 




amuyd 




Dat. 


amussa adussa 


amtissd 


amuyd 


AbL 


amusmd amumhd 


amuyd 




Gen, 


, amussd adussd 


amussd 


amuyd 


Loc. 


amumhi amusmim 


amussam 


amuyam 






PLURAL. 








Masc. and Fem. 


Neut. 






Nom. amii 


amiujo 


amu amuni 






Ace. amU 


amuyo 


amu amuni 






Instr. 


amabhi 


amuhi 






Dat. 


amusam 


amusdnam 






Abl. 


amubhi 


amuhi 




- 


Gen. 


amijsam 


amusdnam 






Loc. 




amusu 





A defective pronominal stem is ena. It occurs in the ace. 
of all numbers enam, and the instr. sing. : masc. enena, and 
fem. enayd. 



DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. 



45 



3) Relative Pronoun. 





SINOVLAB. 






Masc. and Neut. 


Fem. 




Nora, yo 


yrtw (yrtrf) 


yd 




Ace. yam 


yam 


yam 




Instr. yena 




ydya 




Dat. ya%m 




yassd 


ydya 


Abl. yasma 


yamha 


ydya 




Gen. yassa 




yassd 


ydya 


Loc. yasmim 


yamhi 

PLURAL. 


yassam 


ydyam 


Masc. and Neut. 


Fem. 




Nom. ye 


ydni 


yd ydyo 


Ace. ye 


ydni 


yd ydyo 


1 


Instr. yehi 




ydhi 




Dat. y^sam 


ydsani 




Abl. yehi 




ydhi 




Gen. yesam 


ydsam 




Loc. yes< 




ydsii 





0, ayam and eso, along with the personal pronouns, are 
sometimes used in conjunction with yo for greater emphasis. 

In adverbial use we find the ace. sing. neut. yam, the 
instr. yena, the abl. yasmd, and the loc. yasmiin. 

4) Interrogative Pronoun. 

Masc. ko, neut. kitn, fem. kd, is declined like yo. 

In the dat. and gen. masc. and neut. sing, kissa by the 
side of kassa, and in the loc. kismim kimhi by the side of 
kasmim kamhi. The gen. sing. n. kissa, instr. kena and kasmd, 
are used adverbially. 

6) Indefinite Pronouns. 

In affixing ci (for cid) api and cana to the interrogative 
pronoun, the indefinites are formed. 

entocLAR. 
Masc. and Neut. Fem. 

Nom. koci ki/ici ' k&ci. 

Ace. kanci 



46 



PA 


LI GRAMMAR 




8IM0ULAR. ' 


Masc. and Neut. 




Instr. kenaci 




Dat. kassaci 




Abl. kasmaci 




Gen. kassaci 




Loc. kasmici 


kismici 



FLUKAL. 

Masc. and Fern. Neut. 

keci kanici 

sayam ' self, oneself,' and tumo corresponding to Skr. tmana, 
are used as emphatic pronouns with all cases. 

19. PRONOMINAL DERIVATIVES. 

From pronominal stems derivatives are formed, which have 
the character of pronominal adjectives. Thus : 

madlyo 'mine,' mamako 'mine,' -y/mad ; amhadlyo 'our,* 
\/amhad; and in combination with diso and di, interchangeable 
with the form riso, standing for Skr. dr9, we find mddiso 
' like me,' etadiso ' like that,' Idiso and idi ' like this,' kidiso 
and kldi ' like what ? ' 

From the stems : 

ta ka ya are formed the adjectives 
tati kati yati, with the meaning of, respectively, *80 
many,' ' how many,' and * as many.' 

From 

ya ka, with the suflBxes tara tama, we find yataro yatamo 
' which,' and kataro katamo ' what, which?' and from i : itaro 
* other, difierent.' 

A great many derivatives of pronouns are used adverbially. 
They will be noticed hereafter. 

A number of adjectives are inflected according to the 
pronominal declension. 

Such words are, e.g. 

anno ahhataro ahhatamo * certain ' ; kataro kafamo * which * ; 
yataro yatamo * which ? * ; itaro * other * ; tittaro uttamo 



NUMERALS. 47 

'higher'; adharo 'inferior'; uhhayo 'both*; aparo paro 
'other'; dakkhino 'right*; piibbo 'former'; visso 'all*; 
and sabbo * all, every.' 

Some few of these words form their cases also according 
to the nominal declension. 



20. NUMERALS. 

Cakdinals. 

1 eko ekd ekam 

2 dve duve ubho (for all 3 genders) 

3 tayo tisso tint 

4 cattdro {caturo) catasso cattdri 
6 panca 

6 cha {chat) 

7 satta 

8 attha 

9 nava 

10 dam 

11 ekarasa ekddasa 

12 bdrasa dvddasa 

13 tedasa terasa telasa 

14 catvddasa cuddasa coddasa 

15 pancadasa pannarasa pannarasa 

16 solasa sorasa 

17 sattadasa satlarasa 

18 atthddasa atthdrasa 

19 ckunavlsati ekunavisam 

20 risad visam 

21 ekatlsati ekavUam 

22 dvdvlsati bdvisafi 

23 tevlmti 

24 catuvisati 

25 pancavUati 

26 chabblsati 

27 sattablaati sattavisati 

28 atthavlsam 



48 PALI GRAMMAR. 

Cardinal*. 

29 ehunatimmm ehunatimsati 

30 timaa timsati 

31 ekatimsa 

32 dvattimm 

40 catfdlisam cattdrlsam 

tdlisam talisa 

50 pannasa pannasam pannasa 

60 safthi 

70 sattati 

80 aslti 

90 navuti 

100 sfl^;, 

200 bdmtam dvdsatam 

1,000 sahassam 

10,000 dasasnhassam nahiitam 

100,000 satasahassam lakkham 

1,000,000 dasamfasahassam 

100,000,000 Icoti 

From koti upwards eacli succeeding numeral is ten million 
times the preceding one. After the combination with koti, 
pakoti kotippakoti and nahutam ninna/nitam akkhohini and 
bindu, the succeeding numerals are neuters in am. The last 
numeral given is asankhej/f/am=10,000,000^^. 

In combination with una 'deficient, less,' the eka is in 
some instances omitted, as unasattamtam * 699.' 

addhiko 'exceeding, surpassing,' is used sometimes to 
denote the higher number, e.g. : saftddhikavlsa '27,' i.e. 
7 exceeding 20 ; atthdramdhikam dvisatam *218.' 

The following forms of numerals ought to be noticed. 
26 pannavlsati paTicavisati 

44 cuitdllsam cattallsam 

66 chappannasa 
84 ctd/dsiti caturdsVi 

Fractionals are : 

addfio nddho *J*; ditjaddho diraddho, *1J'; addhateyyo 
addhatiyo * 2^ ; addhuddho ' 3^.' 



NUMERALS. 49 

Other combinations with addho are frequent, e.g. dasaddha' 
sata ' 500 ' ; addhatelasasata * 1250.' 
catutthamso ' \.' 

For the other fractionals the ordinals are used. 
To form the multiplicatives khattum is used : ckakkhattum 

* once,' solasakkhattum * 16 times.' 

To form adverbs from numerals the suffixes dhd and sa are 
used : 

ekadha * in one way ' ; ekasa 'one by one.* 

Adjectives are formed with the suffixes tvV/AOj^fwno and ahgiko: 

atthavidho * eightfold ' ; navaviddho ' ninefold ' ; sattagum 

* sevenfold ' ; atthangiko ' eightfold ' ; pancahgiko * fivefold.* 

Declension of the Cardinals. 
eka. 





Masc. 


and Neut. 


Fem. 


Nom. 


eko 


ekam 


eka 


Voc. 


eka 


eka 


eke 


Ace. 


ekam 


ekam 


ekam 


Instr. 




ekena 


ekdya 


Dat. 




ekassa 


ekissa 


Abl. 


ekasmd 


ekamhd 


ekdya 


Gen. 




ekassa 


ekma 


Loc. 


ekasmim 


ekamhi 


ekissam 



ekdyam 

The plur. eke * some,' follows the analogy of sahha. 

uhho 
(For all three genders.) 
Nom. Ace. Yoc. uhho 
Inst. Abl. uhhohi uhhehi 

Dat. Gen. uhhinnam 

Loc. ubhoau ubhesu 

uhho is in form a dual corresponding to Skr. ubhau. The 
declension is very irregular. 

dve, dttve. 
Nom. Yoc. Ace. dve duve 

Instr. Abl. dcthi dvlbhi 

Dat. Gen. dvinnam duvinnam 

Loc. dviau 



60 




PALI GRAMMAR. 






Masc. and Neut. 


^1. 


Fem. 


Nona. 




tayo 


tint 


tkso 


Ace. 




iayo 


tlni 


iisso 


Instr. 


Abl. 


tihi 


tihhi 


tihi tihhi 


Dat. Gen. 


tiniiam tinnannam 


iissannam tissam 


Loc. 




fWi 


tissu 
catur. 


tisu tissu 






Masc. and Neut. 


Fem. 


Nom. Voc. 


Ace. 


cattdro 


caturo cattdri 


catasso 


Instr. Abl. 




catuhhhi catuhi catubhi 


catuhhhi catuhhi 


Dat. Gen. 




eatunnam 


catassannam 


Loc. 




eatusu 


eatusu 
panca, cha. 


eatusu eatusu 




Masc. Fem. 


Neat. Masc. Fem. Neut. 




Nom 


L. 


paTica 


cha 




Instr. Abl. 


pancahi 


chahi 




Gen. 


Dat. 


pancannam 


channam 




Loc. 




pahcasu 


chasu 



All numerals ending in a are declined in like manner. 

The numerals in i are declined like the fem. in i. 

loke ekasatthiyd arahantesu j'dtesu * when there were 61 
arhats in the world ' ; satthim arahatim oka * made sixty 
converts ' ; lendni atthasatthiyo * 68 cells.* 

The gen. and dat. of risam, timsa, panndsa are given 
respectively as visdya, timsdya, pahndsdya. 

satam and the higher numerals are declined like neuters in 
am. In conjunction with nouns the following constructions 
are frequent : 

1) With a noun in the gen. plur. : satam muldnam ' a 
hundred roots ' ; acchardnam sahassam ' 1000 nymphs.* 

2) As last part of a compound : gdthdsatam ' a hundred 
stanzas.* 

3) With a noun in the sing, in corap. : chachattdlisasatam 
vassam atikhamma ' after the lapse of 146 years.' 

4) As first part of a compound the whole in the plural : 
sahassajatild * 1000 jatilas.' 



m 



THE ORDINALS. 51 

THE ORDINALS. 

The ordinals are formed from the cardinals by means of 
suffixes. They are declined like adjectives. The fem. ends, 
with exception of the first four numerals which form their 
stems in a difierent way, in I, the neuter in am. 

For the ordinal of one, pathamo, pathamd, pathamam is used. 

From dva and ti we have dutiyo fem. dutiyd^ neut. dutiyam ; 
tatiyo fem. tatiyd, neut. tatiyam 

The cardinals for *4,' '5,' * 6,' '7' form the ordinals by 
adding iha : catuttho, pancafho, chattho, sattho. 

For * 4 ' a form turlyo with the fem. turiyd occurs. 

Besides the form in tha the suffix ma is added to form the 
ordinals, ' 5,' * 6,' * 7,' and onwards up to *99,* e.g.pancamo 
*5th'; dasamo ' 10i\i' ', so/asawo * 16th'; ekunavlsatimo '\Qi\x''y 
ekarlsatimo *2l8t'; timsatimo * 30th * ; satthimo *60th.* 

Besides these longer forms from 10 upwards, we find an 
ordinal made from the cardinal by the suffix a : 

pancadaso * 15th ' ; vlso ' 20th ' ; ekavlso ' 2l8t ' ; ievlso 
' 23rd ' ; ekunatimso ' 29th ' ; thmo * 30th ' ; cattdhso ' 40th * ; 
pamiaw ' 50th ' ; sattho * 60th * ; sattato * 70th ' ; aslto ' 80th ' ; 
navido * 90th.' 

The ordinal for 100 is satamo, and with the fuller superlative 
suffix sataiamo, just as for 1000 sahassamo and sahassatamo. 

The fem. of some of the ordinals is used to designate the 
day of the month, e.g. : 
paTicaml * the fifth day of the half month.* 
ekddasi * the eleventh day of the half month.* 
pa/icadasl * the fifteenth day of the half month.* 

21. THE VERB. 

The native grammarians divide the verbs according to the 
manner in which the present and the tenses and modes which 
belong to the present system, viz. imperfect, potential and 
imperative, are formed into seven classes. These are called 
from the verb which serves as prototype for the whole class : 



62 PALI GRAMMAR. 

1) hhavddiy i.e. * hhu and the other verbs/ or * having hhu 
at the beginning.' 

2) rudhddi. 

3) diiadi. 

4) svcidL 

5) kiyadi. 

6) tanadi. 

7) curaiddi. 

First class : It consists of the following divisions : 

1) The root ending in i or ti is gunated, and a added : 
^bhu bhava. 

2) To the root ending in a consonant an a is added, 
^9- ^/pac-\-a-=.paca 'to cook*; further, y/tiid *to gnaw'; 
y/nud * to remove ' ; yjlikh ' to write ' ; \/phus ' to touch.' 

3) To the root ending in a vowel, the personal endings are 
added without intervening vowel, e.g. \Jyd * to go.* 

The second class comprises those verbs in which a nasal 
is inserted before the final consonant of the root. The 
terminations are added with an intermediate a as in the first 
class : y/riidh, rundhati * to restrain.* 

The third class adds ya to the root. The phonetic rules 
regarding y are applied : y/div^ dibbati * to play.' 

The fourth class adds nu nd una to the root : stmoti 
pdpundti. 

The fifth class adds tid to the root which ends in a vowel : 
kindti * to buy ' ; dhundti * to shake.' 

The sixth class adds o or m to the root. The root 
generally ends in a nasal : tanoti, karoti. 

The seventh class adds aya eiio the gunated root: corayati 

Every verb is supposed to have two voices with separate 
endings : the parasaapadam or transitive, and attanopadam or 
intransitive. The attanopadam is very restricted in its use, 
and it is therefore difficult to give the attanopadarn for 
every verb. 

The passive verbs are formed through adding ya to the 
root and affixing the ending of the attanopadam, or though 
less frequently of the parassapadam to this base. 

The tenses of the Pali verb are : 



m^mmm 



THE VERB. 53 

Special tense 

1) Present {vattdmdnd), and derived from it two modes: 

Optative (sattami) ; Imperative {pancamt) ; and 
the Participle Present aa verbal adjective. 

2) Imperfect {htyattanl). 
General tenses 

1) Perfect (jparohkhd). 

2) Aorid {ajjatanl). 

3) Future (bhavtssantl). 

4) Conditional (kdldtipatti) . 

The general tenses often take the basis of the special 
tenses, and vice versd. 

A verb can appear in different classes without, however, 
changing its meaning, e.g. titthati and thdti * to stand ' ; 
daddti, deti and dajjati * to give ' ; vadati, vadeti, vajjati and 
vajjeti * to speak.' 

Other roots appear in different classes with a differentiation 
of meaning, such as, e.g. : '^/vid, vidati ' to know ' ; vindati * to 
find, to get ' ; and vijjati * to be, to exist.' 

1) It is needless to advert to the fact that the classes have 
been made up to a great extent to bring the conjugation of 
Pali in a closer connection with that of Sanskrit. 

2) The tenses of the Aorist and Imperfect are simply 
tenses of the past, and it is therefore not advisable to take 
the Imperfect separately from the Aorist. It is quite true 
that originally there existed a difference in the meaning 
between Aorist and Imperfect ; but in the Pali texts, as they 
lie before us, no such difference can be traced. "We shall 
therefore consider the Imperfect simply as a tense of the past 
not dependent on the Present system. 

3) The Perfect tense is of rare occurrence. 



I. The Present System. 


The endings are the following 


: 


PRESENT PARASSAPADAM. 


phessnt attawopadam. 


1) mi 1) ma 


1) e 1) mhe 


2) si 2) tha 


2) se 2) vhe 


3) ti 3) anti 


3) te 3) ante are 



64 PALI GRAMMAR. 

niPBRATlTE rAEASSAPADAM. IMPERATITB ATTANOPADAM. 

1) mi 1) ma 1) e 1) dmase 

2) hi 2) tha 2) asu 2) vho 

3) iu 3) anfu 3) <a;w 3) antam 

OPTATIVE PAUA8SAPADAM. OPTATIVE ATTANOPADAM. 

1) e eyydmi 1) eyydma 1) eyyam 1) eyydmhe 

2) e eyydsi 2) eyydtha 2) e^Ao 2) eyyavho 

3) c cyyrt 3) eyywn 3) e^Aa 3) erawj 

"We best divide the verbs into the following classes : 

1) Verbs which affix the endings given above without 

intervening rowel. 

2) Reduplicating class. 

3) Nasal class. 

4) a- class. 

5) ya- class. 

I. The Root Class of Sanskrit grammar. Through the 
contraction of aya into e, of ava into o, many verbs follow 
now the analogy of this class. These are either primitive 
verbs such as j'eti for j'ayati, or derivatives such dpddeti for 
dpddayati. Most of the verbs have forms in other classes. 
A distinction between strong and weak forms takes place 
only occasionally. 

We give as paradigms : 

\/i ^Jya 

Sing, emi Plu. ema Sing, ydmi Plu. ydma 

esi etha yd^i ydtha 

eti enti, yanti ydti yanti 

Like emi, semi * to lie down.' The third person attanopa- 
dani occurs as 

Sing, sete Plur. sente 

Verbs following the analogy of ydti are, vdti ' to blow ' ; 
pdti * to protect * ; bhdti ' to shine.' 

Besides the forms, according to the reduplicating class, 
o( y/dd 'to give ' and thd * to stand/ we have deti fhati, 
which follow the analogy of ydti. 

In the same way a contracted form of verbs in aya, ava 
follows this class, e.g. : 



PRESENT TENSE. 66 

koti, a contracted form of b/tavati, \/bhu * to exist,' which 
shows the following forms : 

Sing, homi Plur. homa 
host hotha 

hoti honti 

y/bru 'to speak' exhibits besides the form braviiif a con- 
tracted form bruti. 

Sing, brumi Plur. brUma 
bmsi brutha 

bruti bravanti 

The ATTANOPADAM is 

Sing, brave Plur. br&mhe 
JrMse br-Avhe 

JrS^e bravante 

The most important verb of this division is ^/as * to be.* 
Sing, asmi amhi Plur. asma amha 
asi ahi attha 

atthi santi 

Single forms following the first class are, e.g. : 
III. p. sing, vatti V vac * to speak,' at the side of vacati 
and vadati. 

III. p. sing, hantiy yjhan, ' to strike.' 

III. p. pi. duhanfi, y/duh ' to milk.* 

III. p. pi. lihanti, y/lih *to lick.* 

III. p. sing. att. hanute, y/hnu * to conceal oneself.* 

II. Reduplicating Class. 

The present form is formed by prefixing a reduplication 
to the root. The rules of reduplication are : 

1) The consonant of the reduplicating syllable is always 
the first consonant of the root. 

2) A non-aspirate is substituted in reduplication for an 
aspirate. 

3) A palatal is substituted for a guttural or //.^ 

* The substitution of the palatals for the gutturals shows that the vowel of the 
reduplication syllabic was uiuformly an #, as in Greek. 



66 PALI GRAMMAR. 

4) A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicated syllable. 
Examples of reduplication are ; 
dadiifi, yjda * to give.* 
dadhdti, dahdti y/dhd * to put.' 
titthdU, y/thd * to stand.' 
jahdii, ^/hd * to leave.' 
jiihoti, y/hu * to sacrifice.* 

pibati, or pivati ^pd * to drink/ cpr. Lat. hihere. 
The conjugation is as follows : 
y/dd 
Sing, dadami Plur. damma 
daddsi dattha 

daddti dadanti 

In analogy with the first pers. plu. a new singular was 
created, viz. : dammi, dasi, dati. 
Besides these forms we have : 

dajjati according to the ya class. This formation is 
probably due to the optative. The form deti was noticed 
above. 

Of the attanopadam only a few forms can be quoted, viz. : 
I. sing, dade and I. plur. daddmase. 
y/thd 
Sing, titthdmi Plur. titthdma 
titthasi tkdtha titthatha 

titthati titthanti 

III. The Nasal Class : In it we comprise the verbs of the 
fourth, fifth and sixth classes of the native grammarians. 
They form their present stem by adding in the fourth and 
sixth class no if the root ends in a vowel, o if in n, or as in 
the case of karoti in r. These verbs add arbitrarily also nd, 
the class-sign of the fifth class. The few verbs belonging to 
that class always retain the class-sign na. 

As paradigms may serve : 

y/su ' to hear.' 
Sing, aiinomi, sundmi Plur. mnoma, simdma 

suTiosi, sunasi sundst aunotha, sunatha 

sunoti, smiati siinanti 



PRESENT TENSE. 67 

In the same way y/tan 'to stretcli' is conjugated, of which 
the attanopadam occurs as : 

Sing, tanve Plur. tanumhe 

tanme tanuvhe 

tanute tanvante 

y/ht ' to buy ' has only the forms in a kindmi. 
The most important verb belonging to this class is ^kar 
* to make.' 

Sing, karomi kummi Plur. karoma 

karosi karotha 

karoti karonti 

The aUanopadam shows the following forms ; 
Sing, kuhhe 



Plur. 



kuhhase 


kuruse 


kuhhate 


kurute 


kubbdmhe 


kurumhe 


kubbdvhe 


ktiruvhe 


kubbante 


kurunte 



kubbati 



rV". The a Class : The most numerous class of verbs is that 
which, while gunating the root ending in i or u to ay or av 
respectively, adds the personal endings with intervening a. 
Closely connected with this class in Pali are those verbs 
which add to a consonantal stem a before the endings. 
Lastly, we have to count among this class those verbs which 
strengthen the root by a nasal, and add the personal endings 
with a or less frequently /. 

The first two divisions belong to the first class of the 
native grammarians, the last division forms the second class. 

As paradigms we take : 

^bhu * to be, to exist.* 



Sing, bhavdmi 


Plur. 


bhavdma 


bhavasi 


it 


bhavatha 


bhavati 


>f 


bhavanti 


The aUanopadam is 






Sing, bhave 


Plur. 


bhavdmhe 


hhavase 





bhatache 


bhavate 


t> 


bhavante 



68 PALI ORAMMAE. 

A consonantal stem is y/tud *to push/ which is conjugated 
exactly like bhavatO 

y/rudh * to restrain ' has the following forms : 
Sing, rundhdmi and rundhlmi 
rundhaai rundhisi 
rundhati rundhlti 
Plur. rundhdma rimdhlma 
rundhatha rundhltha 
rundhanti rundhinti 
A few verbs form their present tense by adding ccha to the 
root, e.g. y/gam * to go,' gacchdmi. 

There is, however, also a form gamati *he goes* and 
ghammati. This latter form can be substituted for all the 
forms of the verb. Cpr. further hravlti. 

The ya Class: The present tense of this class adds ya 
to the root. These form the third class of the native 
grammarians. All the phonetic rules regarding y are 
applied, e.g. : 

\/div -\- ya = dihhati 

y/siv -\- ya = sihhati 

y/yudh -\- ya =. yujjhati 



22. MODES OF THE PRESENT TENSE. 

1) Imperative : It is formed by adding the endings given 
on page 54 to the present stem. The second pers. sing. par. 
sometimes show the mere stems without the characteristic 
ending. As paradigms may serve : 

y/i * to go.' 

I. sing, emi I. plur. etna 

II. ehi II. etha 

III. ,, etu III. ,, entu 



1 The difference between these two conjugations can only be traced in 
Sanskrit, where the accent is varying. 



MODES OF THE PRESENT TENSE. 59 

s/as * to be.* 
I. sing, asmi I. plur. asma 

II. ahi II. attha 

III. atthu III. 8antu 

\/da ' to give.* 
An imperative can be formed from all the stems in 
use, e.g. : 

II. sing, dehi daddhi dajja II. plur. detha daddtha 
The attanopadam has the following forms : 

I. sing, dade I. plur. daddmase 

II. dadassu II. dadavho 

III. dadatam III. dadantam 

y/kr ' to make.' 
II. sing, kuru karohi II. plur. karotha 

III. karotu kurufu III. karontu kuhhantu 

ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, kuhhe I. plur. kubbdmase 

II. kurussu II. kuruvho 

III. kurutam III. kubbantam 

^Jbhu. 

II. sing, bhava bhavdhi II. plur. bhavatha 
III. bhavatu III. bhavantu 

ATTANOPADAM. 

II. sing, bhavassu II. plur. bhavavho 

III. bhavatam III. bhavantam 

y/gam * to go.* 
The Imperative is formed also from all the stems in use, ^.^7. : 

II. sing, gaccha, gacchdhi, ghamma, ghammahi 

2) Optative : It is formed by adding the endings given 
on page 54. The endings showed originally only forms 
commencing with ya. A combination, however, took place 
in most cases with the final vowel of the stem. These forms 
could again be contracted into e. 
As paradigms may serve : 

y/bhu. 
I. sing, heyydmi, bhaveyya I. plur. heyydma 
huveyya, bhave 



60 






PALI GRAMMAR. 




II. 


sing. 


hei/i/dsi 


II. plur. heyydtha 




III. 


> 


hei/i/a 


III. heyyum 

ATTANOPADAM. 




I. 


sing. 


bhave, hhaveyydmi I. plur. hhaveyydmhe 


II. 


w 


hhavetho 


II. bhaveyyacho 


III. 





bhavetha 


III. bhaveram. 
y/as. 




I. 


sing. 


assam 


I. plur. assdma 




II. 





assa 


II. assatha 




III. 


)} 


assa, siyd 


III. asBu siyum 








Vkr. 




I. 


kare, 


kareyya, 


kubbe, kubbeijya, kayird, 


kayirdmi 


II. 


n 


kareyyasi, 


kubbeyyasi, 


kayirdsi 


III. 





kareyya. 


kubbeyya, 


kayird 


I. 




kareyydma 


[, kubbeyydma, 


kayirdma 


II. 




kareyydtha, kubbetha, 


kayirdtha 


III. 




kareyyam, 


kubbeyam, 
y/dd. 


kayirum 


Shows the forms 










dajj'd, cladeyya, dajjeyya, deyya. 










VJna. 








jdniya, janha^ jdneyya. 










^gam. 








gacche, gaccheyya. 





23. GENERAL TENSES. 
.The Perfect System. 

The formation of the Perfect is essentially alike in all 
verbs. The characteristics of the formation are : 1) a stem 
made by reduplication of the root and endings, unlike those 
of the present and the other tenses. The rules for redupli- 
cation are the same as those given for the second conjugation, 
e.g. : yj gnm-=.jagdma. 

The perfect in published texts is of rare occurrence. 



GENERAL TENSES. 61 

The endings are : 

FOR THB PARA8SAPADAM. FOB THE ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, a I. plur. mha I. sing, i mhe 

II. e II. ttha II. ttho vho 
III. a III. w III. ttha re 

Boots ending in consonants insert an i between stem and 
consonantal endings. 
As paradigms may serve : 

y/bhu. 
I. sing, bahhuva I. plur. babhuvimha 

11. babhuve II. babhuvittha 

III. babhuca III. babhuvu 

ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, babhuvi 1. plur. babhuvimhe 

II. babhuvittho II. babhuvivho 

III. ,, babhuvittha III. babhuvire 







^/pac. 

PABASSAFADAM. 




I. 


sing, papaca 


I. 


plur, papacimha 


II. 


papace 


II. 


papacittha 


III. 


papaca 


III. 

ATTANOPADAM. 


papacu 



I. sing, papaci I. plur. papacimhe 

II. papacittho II. papacicho 

III. papacittha III. papacire 

y/ah 'to speak' is only used in the III. per. sing, and plur. 
of the perfect. 

III. sing, aha III. plur. dhamsu and dhu 



24. AORIST AND IMPERFECT.^ 

The aorist and imperfect are, as stated above (page 53), 
blended into one form, partaking of the character of both. 
The native grammarians are at great pains to give a paradigm 

> Cpr. H. 01denbrg, Kohn's Zeitachrift, xxt. 319. 



62 TALI GRAMMAR. 

for both forms, which, however, turns out futile. Moreover, 
no difference can be made in the syntactic use of the two 
tenses. 

The paradigm of the native grammarians is for the 
hlyattanl (imperfect) : 

ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, a I. plur. amhd 

II. ,, II. attha 

III. a III. 6 

PAUA88AFADAU. 

I. sing, im I. plur, mhase 

II. se 11. rham 

III. ttha III. tthum 
For the aj/atani (aorist) : 

ATTANOPADAK. 

I. sing, im I. plur. imhd 

II. II. tttha 

III. i III. tm inisu 

PARA88APADAM. 

I. sing, a I. plur. imhe 

II. ise II. ivham 

III. a III. u 

"We can distinguish altogether three different formations 
in Piili. The augment a is in prose generally put before the 
verb. In verse it is omitted according to the exigencies of 
the metre. With the negative particle md the aorist is used 
as an imperative. 

First Formation. 

PA&AS8APADAM. 

I. sing, am I. plur. amha 

II. a, II. attha 

III. d III. urn 

ATTANOPADAX. 

I. sing. I. plur. dmhase 

II. ase II. acham 

III. attha III. atthum 

The nasal in the first pcrs. sing. plur. is often omitted. 



AORIST AND IMPERFECT. 63 

Only verbs in consonants form their preterite according to 
this formation. Its use is very limited. This formation can 
be considered as an imperfect if it is used with the present 
stem. 

Second Formation. 



isum 









PA&A88APADAH. 






I. 


sing. 


im 


I. 


plur. 


imha 


IL 





i 


II. 


)> 


ittha 


III. 





i 


III. 

ATTAKOPADAM, 





tnisu 


I. 


sing. 





I. 


plur. 


tmhe 


II. 


>> 


ise 


II. 





ivham 


III. 


)) 





III. 


i> 






This form is regularly used for all stems ending in con- 
sonants. For the first pers. sing, we find in verse some- 
times the endings kam and issam according to the analogy 
of Sanskrit. 

Third Formation. 

The third form of the aorist is an 5 aorist. The forms are : 

PARA8SAPADAM. 

I. sing, siin simha 
II. si sittha 

III. si sum 

This formation is used for the verbs ending in vowels. 
Some verbs ending in consonants follow this analogy, 
and then, of course, all phonetic change takes place. 
Causatives follow the analogy of this aorist after contracting 
aya into e. 

Besides these some forms occur which date back to a 
formation anterior to the fixing of Ptili. 

Many verbs appear in all the three formations. 
The following paradigms will illustrate the different 
formations : 

y/bhu. 
I. sing, ahhavam I. plur. abhatamhA 

II. ,, abhavo II. abhacattha 



G4 



[ 






TALI GRAMMAR. 




III. 


sing. 


arJAflim 






III. 


plur. 


ahhavu 


I. 





a /ill vain 






I. 


)> 


ahuvamhd 


11. 


>> 


ahuvo 






II. 


i) 


ahuvattha 


III. 





ahiica 






III. 


>> 





I. 


>> 


ahosim 






I. 








II. 





ahosi 






II. 


>> 





III. 


> 


ahosi 






III. 


>> 


ahesum 


I. 


)) 


ahhavim 












I. 












I. 





ahumhd 


III. 


>> 


aim ahu before 












vowels ahud 


r 


III. 





ahum 










^dd 


. 






I. 


sing. 


adadam, 


etc. 










I. 





add, etc. 






III. 


plur. 


adum 


I. 





addsim 






I. 


>> 


adadmha 


II. 


)> 


addsi 






II. 


J) 


adasittha 


III. 


> 


addsi 




Vkr 


III. 





addsim adamsu 


I. 


sing. 


akaram^ 


etc. 










I. 


w 


akdsim aJidsi, 


etc. 


III. 


plur. 


akdsum 


I. 





akd 




{ 


II. 
III. 




akattha 
okanisu 


I. 


> 


akarim, < 


3tc. 


y/as 


III. 


>> 


akarum akarimsu 


I. 


sing. 


dsim 






I. 


plur. 


dsimha 


II. 





dsi 






II. 


>> 


dsittha 


III. 





dsi 






III. 





dsiim dsimsu 










y/gam. 






I. 


sing. 


agam 






I. 


plur. 


agnmha 


II. 


>> 


aga 






II. 


>) 


aguttha 


III. 


>> 


agd 






III. 


}) 


agum 


I. 


>> 


agamd 


agamim 








II. 


>> 




agami 








III. 


>> 


agnmi 












I. 


>> 


agacchi 












I. 





aganchim 


( 




I. 


f> 


aganchimhd 



AORIST AND IMPERFECT. 



65 



II. sing. agaTichi agancho II. plur. agailchittha 
III. agaTichi III. agailchimm 

II. and III. sing, agacchiai 

y/vac. 



I. 


sing. 


avacd 


II. 


per. plur. avacuttha 


I. 


>> 


arocam 


11. 


avocaiha 


III. 


>> 


avoca 


III. 

. y/lahh. 


plur. avociim 


I. 


sing. 


alattham 


I. 


sing, alahhim 


II. 


>> 


alattha 


II. 


alahhi 


III. 


)) 


alattha 


III. 


,, alahhi 



After contracting aya into e, the aorist of the causatives is 
also formed according to the third formation : 



I. sing, acoresim 
II. acoresi 
III. 



acoresi 



I. plur. acoresimha 

II. acoresittha 

III. 



acoremm 



In roots ending in consonants s influences the last letter as 
usual, e.g. : adakkhi from passati ' to see,' but also apassi ; 
akkocchi from kosati ' to revile,' but also akkosi. 

Of forms in issatn or isam, I. pers. sing, second formation, 
we notice sandhdvissam, paccavekkhisam, gacchisam, vandissaniy 
etc. 

For the atianopadam the paradigm is the following : 



I. 


sing. 





I. 


plur. 


abhavdmhase 


II. 


)y 


abhavase 


II. 




ahhavham 


III. 


>> 


ahhavattha 


III. 




ahhavatthum 


I. 


it 





I. 




abhavimhe 


II. 


> 


ahhavise 


11. 




abhavivham 


III. 





abhavittha 


III. 








The attanopadam is of rare occurrence, and only a few 
forms can be given : 

II. pers. sing, atimannittho 
I. pers. plur. akardmhase 



66 



PALI GRAMMAR. 



25. FUTUEE. 

The tense sign is ss, which is added to the root directly, or 
by the auxiliary vowel i. The endings are : 

POB THB FARA88APADAM. 



I. 


sing. 


88dmi 


I. plur. 


ssdma 


II. 





ssasi 


11. 


ssatha 


HI. 





88ati 


III. 

FOR THE ATTANOPADAM. 


ssanti 


I. 


sing. 


ssam 


I. plur. 


ssdmhe 


II. 





ssasse 


II. 


asavhe 


III. 


> 


ssate 


in. 


ssante (ssare) 



The form to which these endings are added is mostly the 
strengthened. They can, however, also be added to the 
special base. 

PARAS8APADAM. 



I. 


sing. 


hhavissdmi 


I. 


plur. 


bhauasdma 


II. 





bhavissasi 


II. 


)i 


bharissatha 


III. 





hhavissati 


III. 

ATTAKOPADAM. 


. >> 


bhavissanti 


I. 


sing. 


bhamssam 


I. 


plur. 


bharissdmh 


II. 


> 


bbavissasse 


II. 


>i 


bhavissavhe 


III. 


t) 


bhavissate 


III. 


)) 


bhavissante 



{bhtt' 
vissare) 
The 88 being added without intermediate vowel affects of 
course the preceding consonant : dakkhati to passati *to see' ; 
sakkhite to aakkoti ' to be able.' 

A misunderstanding of these forms gave rise to the forma- 
tions dakkhissati and sakkhissati, with a double future sign. 

Cpr. further lacchati to labhati *to take*; checchati to chindati 
* to cut ; ' bhejjati to bhindati ' to break.' 

Forms with auxiliary vowel are also in use, e.g. : labhiasati. 
From the special tense we have futures like gacchiasati to 
gacchati, but also gamissati; juho88ati, juhissati to juhoti. 
karoti has besides the future karissati, a contracted form : 
I. sing, kdhdmi I. plur. kdhdma 

II. kdhasi kahisi II. kdhatha 

III. ,, kdhati kdhiti III. ,, kahanti kahinti 



CONDITIONAL. 67 

In the same way eti * to go ' has, besides the future 
essatiy ehiti. 

The contracted form hoti from hhavati shows the following 
forms : 

I. sing, hemiy hehdmi, hohdmi^ hessami, hehtssdmi, hohissami. 
II. hest, hehisi, hohisi, hessasi, hehissasi, hohissasi. 
III. heti, hetiti, hoiifi, hessati, hehissati, hohissati. 

I. plur. hema, hehdma^ hohdma^ hessdma^ hehissdma, hO' 
hissdma. 
II. hetha, hehittha, hohittha^ hessatha, hehissafha, 
hohissatha. 
III. henti, hehinti, hohinti, hessanti, hehissanti, hohissanti. 
From y/su * to hear ' future att. sussam, ^dd dassati and 
att. dassam, 

26. CONDITIONAL. 

Prom the future stem is made an augment preterite by 
prefixing the augment a and adding the secondary endings : 

PARASSAPADAM. 

I. sing, ssam I. plur. ssdmhd 

II. 8se {ssa) II. ssatha 

III. ssd (ssa) III. ssamsu 

ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, ssam I. plur. ssdmhase 

II. ssase II. ssavhe 

III. ssatha III. ssitmu 

The endings are added with or without intervening /. 
The paradigm is : 

PARASSAPADAM. 

I. sing, abhavissam I. plur. ahhavissdtnhd 

II. abhavissa 88e II. abhavissatha 

III. abhavma 88d III. abhavissamsu 

ATTANOPADAM. 

I. sing, abhavissam I. plur. abhavissdmhase 

II. abhavissase II. abhavmavhe 

III. abhavissatha III. abhavmiiMU 



68 PALI GRAMMAR. 

27. DERIVATIVE CONJUGATION. 

The derivative conjugation may be divided under five 
headings : 

I. Passive: It is formed through adding ya to the weakest 
form. The endings are those of the altanopadam^ but also 
those of the parassapadam occur, y affects a preceding con- 
sonant in the usual way. In a few instances iya is added 
instead of ya, and the endings of the passives are added to 
the present active. 

Cpr. e.g. : iicchate vuccati from y/vac * to speak ' ; vussati 
vasiyati from \/va8 *to dwell.' kayyati karlyati kariyyati 
kayirati are given as passive to karoti. dlyati from y/dd * to 
give*; thlyate from \/thd * to stand'; gamynte, gamiyaii 
gacclnyate ^J gam * to go ' ; gheppati and gayhati to ganhati 
' to take.' 

II. The Intensive or Frequentative is formed by 
reduplication. Its conjugation is in accordance with the 
second conjugational class, the reduplication, however, is 
peculiar. 

The reduplicating syllable is composed of a single con- 
sonant with a heavy vowel : Idlappaii ' to lament ' ; ddddallati 
* to blaze.* 

The reduplicating syllable has a final consonant taken from 
the end of the root. This consonant is a nasal which 
substitutes any other consonant ; cankamati jahgamati 
cahcalati. 

Not many instances of the intensive are met with. 

III. The Desiderative : The desiderative stem is formed 
from the simple root by the addition of a reduplication and 
by an appended sa. This sa affects of course the preceding 
consonants. Some roots form an abbreviated stem by a con- 
traction of reduplication and root together in one syllable. 
Examples are, huhhukkati, yhhiij', pivdsati, y/pd\ vlmamsati 
for mimams ; jigimsati, \/hr ; dicchati, y/dd. 

IV. The Causative : From every root can be formed 
a causative ; this is done by affixing aya to the strengthened 



P^LRTICIPLES, INFINITIVES, GERUNDS. 69 

root. Tlie native grammarians range these verbs under the 
seventh class. 

This aya can optionally be contracted into e. Besides this 
formation, another is in use : apaya contracted into ape is 
added to the root. A diflferentiation of meaning is sometimes 
to be traced. 

If contracted into e, the conjugation follows of course the 
first conjugational class; the forms in aya and apaya are 
conjugated like bhavati. 

As causative of y/gam * to go ' are given gamayati, gameti 
gacchdpetiy gacchapayati ; yjhan * to kill ' has haneti, ghdteti. 

V. Denominatives : From every noun may be formed 
a denominative. The sufiixes employed are : aya, aya, lya. 
e.g. : ciceitdyati ' to splash ' ; piittlyati ' to treat as a son.' 

28. PARTICIPLES, INFINITIVES, GERUNDS. 

1) The Participle Present is formed by the suffixes at 
and anta, which are added to the present stem, e.g.: gacckanto 
gaccham (see above, page 38). In the same way these suffixes 
are added to the future stem, to form 2) Participle Future. 

In the same way the suffixes mdna and dna are used for 
the Present Participle Attanopada. 

3) Of the Perfect Participle in vams only a few 
doubtful traces are left, tndu and viddasu for vidvams. 

4) The Past Participle Passive is formed by the suffixes 
ta and na, which are added directly to the root or through 
an intervening vowel i. Of course all phonetic changes 
take place : 

kato ' made ' ; gato ' gone ' ; icchito * wished * ; phuttho 
' touched * ; laddho * taken ' ; vutto ' spoken * ; vapifo and vufto 
' shaven ' ; dinuo * given.* 

5) From the Past Participle Passive is formed a 
secondary derivative with the meaning of a Past Active 
Participle by adding the suffixes rat, rant, e.g. : 

hutavd hutavanlo * having sacrificed * ; manditard, mandita- 
vanto * having adorned * ; hhtittard ' having eat^n.* 

II. Gerundives : The suffixes by which gerundives are 



70 PALI GRAMMAR. 

regularly and ordinarily formed are : ya tavya (tabba tayya) 
aniya. They are joined with or without intervening vowel i. 
e.g. : bhabbo for bhavyo; karanlyo kdriyo kayyo kayiro kattabbo 
* that ought to bo done * ; ddtayyo ddtabbo ddtabyo * that 
ought to be given.* 

III. Gerunds : The gerund is formed by the suffixes tvd 
ya tvdna and tuna. They take arbitrarily the vowel i 
between root and ending. Sometimes the suffixes ya and tvd 
are united into one. 

Remarkable forms are : 

datfhu and disvd * having seen.' 
anuvicca anuviditvd * having known.' 
dhacca dhanitrd ' having thrown.* 

pappuyya pdpayitcd * having obtained.' 
vineyya vinayitvd * having laid aside.' 
nicchcyya * having ascertained.' 
Cpr. further : passitvdna and passituna * having seen.' 

atmtvd and atikkamitvd 'having approached.* 
datvd, ddya, daditvd * having given.* 
katvdna, kdiuna * having made.* 
gayha, ganhiya, ganhitvd ' having taken.* 

IV. Infinitives : They are formed by the suffixes turn 
tave, and rarely tuye. The infinitive can be formed from the 
special base, or from the root ; in both cases an i is 
arbitrarily inserted : 

e.g. gantum * to go * ; laddhiim * to take * ; vaditum * to 
speak * ; sunitum and aotave * to hear ' ; vippahatave * to give 
up * ; ganetuye * to count.' 

29. INDECLINABLES. 

I. Adverbs. 

ADVERBS FORMED BY SUFFIXES. 

Classes of adverbs are formed by the addition of adverbial 
suffixes not only to pronominal roots or stems, but also to 
noun and adjective stems. 



INDECLINABLES. 71 

Most of these sufl&xes belong to a time anterior to the 
fixing of the Piili, as a comparison with Sanskrit and the 
cognate languages will show. 

1) ^ standing for an original tas. It gives to the word 
to which it is added mostly an ablative sense, but sometimes 
also a local. It may be added to pronouns, prepositions 
and nouns. In the last case it is regarded as the regular 
substitute for the termination of the ablative (see page 41). 

Examples are from pronominal stems : ato ' hence ' ; i(o 

* here ' ; tato * from that place * ; t/ato ' from what ' ; etc. 

2) From prepositions : abhito * near ' ; parato * further.* 

3) From noun and adjective stems: aggato 'before*; 
dalikhinato ' on the south ' ; sahbato * from every side * ; 
pitthito * from the back ' ; pitito * on the father's side.' 

II. Adverbs of a local sense are formed by an original tra. 
This tra is either preserved or assimilated to ita or ttha 
(page 16). It is added to pronominal roots and nouns. 
Examples are : 

1) atra, attha ' here ' ; tatra and tatiha * there ' ; kutra and 
kuttha ' where,' 2) annatra and annatlha ' elsewhere ' ; ubha- 
yattha, ubhayatta ' in both places.' 

dha and assimilated ha also form adverbs with a local sense. 
The forms are used promiscuously: t'ha and idha 'here.' 

Interchangeable with this last suffix are : ham and him 
also forming local adverbs ; kuhirn, ktiham, kaham * where ' ; 
taham, tahwi * there ' ; yahini * where.' 

III. Adverbs of manner are formed by means of the 
suffix thd mostly from pronominal roots : tathd * so ' ; yatha 

* as ' ; but also from adjectives, e.g. sabbatha * in every way ' ; 
annathd ' in another way.* 

By means of the suffix ti or Hi. This adverb is very 
extensively used in cases of indirect narrative, or of 
enumeration, or of quoting the words and thoughts of others. 

By means of the suffix m or ira ' like as.' By the side of 
iva also viya and va. The former seems a metathesis of iva ; 
eva and yera, heca * just, even ' ; evam related to em 
' thus ' ; kiva ' how ? ' 

IV. Adverbs of time are formed by means of the suflix dd : 



72 PALI GRAMMAR. 

hadd ' when ? * ; ya</d * whenever * ; sadd and sabbadd 
' always.* 

Related to da seems di in padi * if.' 

2. By means of the compound suffix : ddni, ddnim for 
ddnlm. iddni, iddnim * now ' ; taddni, taddnim * then.* 

3. By means of the suffix rahi (Skr. rhi) : etarahi, and 
seldom etarhi ' now * ; tarahi ' then.* 

V. By means of the suffix dhd are formed adverbs, 
especially from numerals, signifying * fold, times.' 

Cpr. ekadhd, etc. ' in one way ' ; bahudhd * in many ways * ; 
sabbadhd ' everywhere.* Sometimes we find the suffix d/ii 
used with the same sense : sabbadhi \see page 49). 

VI. Adverbs of quantity, or measure, or manner, are 
formed by means of the suffix so, Skr. 9as. e.g. : bahuso 
' greatly ' ; paTicaso ' by fives * ; akkharaso * letter by letter ' ; 
atthaao * according to the sense.' 

VII. Case Forms used as Adverbs. 

A large number of adverbs have cas.e-suffixes, from stems 
which are or are not otherwise in use. 

1) The Accusative : i/am with the meaning of * that, as, 
became * ; tarn (tad) ' there, thither * ; kiin * why ' ; idam 
' here.' 

Compounded with id we have cid=.ca-\-id: ce 'even,* and 
then after false analogy noce * if not ' instead of tie. 

Noun and adjective stems so used are : 

ndma * by name * ; raho ' secretly ' ; rattam * at night * ; 
saccam * in truth * ; niccam * always ' ; ciram * long ' ; bhlyo 
' again.' 

As accusatives of nouns and adjectives we must also con- 
sider several adverbs of obscure connection which go back 
like most of the preceding in their formation to a period 
anterior to Pali. 

e.g. : ittn/ii ' silently * ; sdyam * in the evening * ; aram 
* speedily ' ; alam ' enough ' ; mitho and mithu ' mutually * ; 
sammd ' fully * ; ac^jju ' instantly * ; isam * a little.' 

2) The Instrumental : Most of the pronominal adjective 
and noun-stems noticed under ace. occur in adverbial use : 



INDECLINABLES. 73 

yena 'because, for which*; dakkhinena 'on the south'; 
cirena * after a long time ' ; diva ' by day * ; amd * with.* 

3) The Dative : It is less extensively used in an adverbial 
sense, e.g. : cirdya * for a long time * ; sukhdya * for the 
benefit * ; hitdya ' for the benefit.' 

4) The Ablative : Most of the pronominal stems are 
used adverbially, e.g. : yasmd ' because ' ; kasmd ' why ? ' ; 
durd, drd * far off ' ; heithd * under, below * ; paccbd ' behind.' 

The original of the ablative d is of necessity lost in Pali. 

5) The Genitive : Its use is very limited, e.g. : kissa 
' why ? ' ; cirassa * long * ; hetu and heto ' on account of.' 

6) The Locative : Forms adverbially used are, e.g. : hhuvi 
* on the earth ' ; dre, dure * after.' 

II. Prepositions. 

Under the name of upasagga (prepositions) the native 
grammarians comprise a number of twenty words, which 
modify the meaning of the verb or substantive to which 
they are added. 

Put in alphabetical order they are as follows : 

^ati 'over, beyond.' 

t adhi * above, over, superior to.' 

\anu 'after, under, less than.' 

^apa 'away, from.' 

ajn ' near, close by.' 

abhi ' to, unto, against.' 

aca 'away, down, oft.' 
t d * until, as far as.' 

t* ud * upwards, above.' 
tj5rt ' below, less.' 

du 'hardly.' 

nir * downwards.' 

ni {nir) ' outward.' 

pa 'forward, onward.' 
"^pati or pati ' towards.' 

pard ' away, aside, back.* 

pari ' around, about.' 



74 I*ALI GRAMMAR. 

ri * apart, asunder.' 
8am * with, together.* 
8ti *well.* 
To these words must bo added a few others, which are 
equally combined with verbs and nouns, but are of a more 
limited use, such as : 
fanto antara 'within.* 
t<f 'manifestly, close.' 
t tiro * across, beyond.' 

pdtu * manifestly.' 
These are mainly used in composition with the verbs a, 
hhuy kr. 

All of the above-mentioned particles and adverbs 
marked f are used as prepositions, and govern nouns. To 
these must be added a few words, which are used like 
modern prepositions and adverbs and only comparatively 
seldom in combination with verbs and nouns, e.g. : 
adho * below.* 

uddham ubbham * upwards.* 
tiriyam 'across.* 
pacchd 'behind.* 
pararn 'beyond, after.* 
piird ' before.' 
bahi ' outwards.' 
rite 'except.* 
vind * without.* 
saha, samam, saddhim ' with.* 



30. COMPOUNDS. 



1) Stems which admit of inflection are, as in other 
languages, combined to form compounds, which are treated as 
if simple in respect to inflection and construction. 



COMPOUNDS. 75 

2) As regards compounds, seldom more than two or three 
stems are combined in the older language; but, as in 
Sanskrit, the later the language is, the more compounds, 
and cumbrous compounds prevail. 

3) It is of course difficult to determine which compounds 
Piili has formed itself, and which it has in common with 
other Indian languages. A sort of criterion is, if we 
find words compounded according to rules which are no more 
in abeyance in Pali ; but even that does not prove con- 
clusively that a compound belongs as commonwealth to the 
Indian languages. 

e.g. : sappuriso Skr. satpurusha * a good man ' ; pullihgam 
Skr. pumlinga * manhood,' for which in later Pali we find 
pumalingam. 

4) These compounds may be divided into three principal 
classes : 

I. Copulative or Aggregative Compounds (dvandm). 

The members are coordinate; in uncom pounded condition 
they would be joined with ca ' and.' Examples are very 
numerous. 

The whole has the gender and declension of its last 
member, and is in number a plural, e.g. : elaka-miga-sukara- 
pakkhtno. 

The compound, without regard to the number denoted or 
the gender of its constituents, becomes a singular collective. 
The gender is mostly neuter. 

e.g. : hiriottappam = hiri + ottappam 
ndmarupam = ndmam + rupam 
ddUddsa^i = ddsi + ddso 
ahoratto, ahoratti, ahoraftam 
kusalakusalamy dhammddhammo, but also as a 
plural dhammddhammd. 
Puma * a male ' has two bases in composition : puma and 
pum : of the former we have itthipumam * male and female * ; 
of the latter pumitthi 'masculine and feminine.' 

Nouns, adjectives and particles are not infrequently 



76 PALI GRAMMAR. 

repeated to give an intensive or distributive repetitional 
meaning, e.g. : 

divase divase ' day after day * ; gdmagdmam * village after 
village ' ; anhamahnam * mutually ' ; punapunam * again and 
again/ 

II. Determinative Compounds (fappurisa). 

There are two divisions ; 

1) Dependent compounds=the tappurisa proper, in which 
the prior member is a substantive word standing to the other 
in the relation of a case dependent on it. 

2) Descriptive corQpo\md8=^kammadfidraj/a, in which the 
prior member is an adjective, or another word having the 
value of an adjective qualifying a noun. 

I. Dependent Compounds. 

They can of course be used either substantively or 
adjectivel3% The case relation may be of any kind. 

hrahmaloko ' Brahma world ' ; padodakam ' water for the 
feet * ; accharasambhavo ' descent from a nymph ' ; saccavadi 
' truthful ' ; dhammadharo ' versed in the law ' ; sarandgama- 
nam * going for refuge * ; veddgu * versed in the law ' ; 
jaccandho * born blind * ; apahbajitasadiso * like one who has 
given up the world ' ; tadko ' like him ' ; mddiso ' like me * ; 
thdlipakko * cooked in a pot.' 

The order of the members which form such compounds 
may be inversed : addhamdso and mdsaddho ' half a month * ; 
pitdmaho * a grandfather.* 

JRqjan, sakhd (sak/ri), if employed as last members of a 
compound, exhibit all the forms known from the declension. 
As first member of a compound rq/an has the base rq/d ; the 
only form allowed in the nom. case as last member is rq/d : 
rqjabhayam ' fear from a king ' ; Kosalarujd ' king of Kosala.' 

Sometimes stems not in use as simple words are employed 
as first members. This looks as if a declined stem has 
been used; but the dependency is not always such as to 
favour such an explanation, e.g. : manasikdro ' attention.' 



COMPOUNDS. 77 

II. Descriptive Compounds {kammadharaya). 

It is of course sometimes difficult to say whether the com- 
pound is tappurusa or kammadharaya. 

mahanto 'great' takes in composition the weak forms mahd 
and mahat, santo * being, good, true,' the weak form sat. 

Examples are : nihippalam * blue lotus ' ; sahbaseto * all 
white'; j9?"yflr;wraf^o 'speaking kindly'; rajassald 'amenstruous 
woman*; sappuriso 'a good man'; saddhammo 'good doctrine'; 
mahapphalo ' very fruitful ' ; mahdpumo * great virtue ' ; 
mahesi ' great sage ' ; hetuppabhavo 'proceeding from a cause'; 
kacchurakhasd ' scab.' 

The adverbial words which are most frequently and 
commonly used as prior members of compounds are : or, an, 
ana * the negative particle ' ; sm ' well ' ; dus * badly * ; sa 
'with.' e.g.: asankhato 'the unconditioned'; anano 'free 
from debt ' ; duppuro ' difficult to fill ' ; sucinno ' well done ' ; 
saseno ' with an army * ; salajjo ' ashamed.' 

ku as former part of many compounds designates inferiority. 
It takes the forms : kicd, kad, ku, e.g. : kunnadl * an in- 
significant river ' ; kadannam ' bad food ' ; kuditthi ' wrong 
view/ 

Closely related to the preceding class are III. the 
Numeral Compounds {digu). The whole is made a neuter 
singular. 

A sample of this sort of compound is digii, 'itself worth 
two cows ' ; further tidandam ' three staves ' ; ticlvaram 
' three robes * ; tlham ' three days.* 

IV. Adverbial Compounds (abyaylbhdm). 

They are also closely related to the Determinative com- 
pounds. They are formed in joining prepositions and 
adverbs to a noun, and are then used as abstracts, collectives, 
and simply adverbially : yathdnicim ' according to one's 
pleasure ' ; but yathdrucito * as liked, pleasant ' ; yathdmato 
' as if dead ' ; sampahdro ' wounding ' ; aampq/amam 
' consciousness * ; apacdro * approach.* 



78 PALI GRAMMAR. 

V. All the preceding compounds may be used adjectively, 
and are then called : Bahuhbihi, e.g. : rltarago * free from 
passion * ; but puruso vltardgo ' a man free from passion, an 
arhat * ; paTicacakkhu ' the five sorts of vision * ; but as an 
epithet of the Buddha, pancacakkhit * man possessing the five 
sorts of vision ' ; anupubbam * regular succession * ; but 
anupubbo * regular, successive* ; anupubbo nirodho 'successive 
destruction.* 

In a few cases compounds are fotTned from words not 
usually put together, e.g. of adverbs. 

vitatho 'false, unreal '=n+^rt^Aa; yathdtatho 'real, true*:= 
f/athd+tafhd. e.g. of a phrase : itihdHO * tradition*; itivuttam 
or itivuttakam ' name of a book, a legend ' ; ahamahamikam 
* conceit of Qw^evioriiy * =.aham-\- aham. 

All these compounds were formed before Pali became 
a literary dialect. 



HANDBOOK OF PALI. 



II. CHRESTOMATHY. 



THE PARITTAM, BEING EXTRACTS 
FROM THE SUTTA PITAKAM. 



NAMO TASSA :BHAGAyATO AEAHATO SAMMA 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Buddham saranam gaccliiTmi. 
Dhammani saranam gacchami. 
Saiigham saranam gacchami. 
Dutiyam pi Buddham saranam gacchami. 
Dutiyam pi Dhammam saranam gacchami. 
Dutiyam pi Sangham saranam gacchiimi. 
Tatiyam pi Buddham saranam gacchami. 
Tatiyam pi Dhammam saranam gacchami. 
Tatiyam pi Sangham saranam gacchami. 

SARANAGAMAXAM. 



1) Paniitipata veramani sikkhjipadam. 

2) Adinnadana veramani sikkhiipadain. 

3) Abrahmacariya veramani sikkhapadam. 

4) Musavada veramani sikkhapadam. 

5) Sura-meraya-majja-pamudatthana veramani sikkha- 
padam. 

6) Vikalabhojana veramani sikkhapadam. 

7) Nacca-glta-vadita-visukadassana veramani sikkhiipadam. 

8) Mala-gandha-vilepana-dharana-mandana-vibhnsanattha- 
na veramani sikkhapadam. 

6 



82 8AMANERAPANHA. DVATTIM8AKABA. 

9) UccHsayana-mahiisayana veramanl sikkhapadam. 

10) Jiitarupa-rajata-patiggahanii veramani sikkhapadam. 

DASASIKKHAPADANI. 



* Eka niima kirn ? ' " Sabbe satta iiharatthitika." 

* Dve niima kim ? ' " Namanca riipaiica." 
' Tini nama kira ? ' " Tisso vedana." 

* Cattari niima kira ? ' " Cattari ariyasaccani." 

* Pafica niima kim ? ' " Pane' upiidiinakkhandhii." 

* Cha nama kira ? ' " Cha ajjhattikiini ayatanani.** 
'Satta niima kim ? * " Satta bojjhahgii." 

* Attha nama kira ? ' " Ariyo atthahgiko maggo." 

* Nava niima kim ? * " Nava sattiiviisii." 

' Dasa nama kim ? ' " Dasah' angehi samannagato araMti 
vuccati ti." 

SAMANERAPANHAM. 



Atthi imasmim kiiye : kesa, lomii, nakhii, danta, taco, 
mamsam, nahiiru, atthI, atthiminjii, vakkam, hadayam, 
yakanara, kilomakam, pihakam, papphiisain, antam, antagu- 
nam, udariyam, karlsam, pittam, seraham, pubbo, lohitam, 
sedo, raedo, assu, vasii, khelo, einghiinikii, lasika, muttam, 
matthake matthaluhgan ti. 

DVATTIMSAKAEAM. 



Patisankhii yoniso cTvarara patiseviimi yiivad eva sitassa 
patighiitiiya unhassa patighiitiiya damsa-makasa-viit&tapa- 
sirimsapa-samphassiinara patighatiiya yavad eva hiri-kopina 
paticchadanattham. i| 1 1| 

Patisankhii yoniso pindapiitara patiseviimi n'eva daviiya na 
madaya na mandaniiya na vibhiisaniiya, yiivadeva imassa 
kayassa thitiyii yiipanaya vihims(iparatiyii brahmacariylL- 
nuggahaya : iti puriinailca vedanam patisaiikhami navanca 



PACCAVEKKHANA. DASADHAMMASUTTA 83 

vedanam na uppadessJimi, yairU. ca me bhavissati anavajjata 
ca phasuvihiiro c&ti. ||2|| 

Patisankhji yoniso senasanam patisevaml yiivadeva sitassa 
patighataya unhassa patighiitiiya darasaraakasavatatapasirira- 
sapasamphassanain patighataya yavadeva utuparissiiya vino- 
danam patisallanaramattham. ||3|| 

Patisaukhji yoniso gilanapaccaya-bhesajjaparikkharam pa- 
tisevatni yavadeva uppannanam veyyabadhikariara vedana- 
nam patighataya abyapajjhaparamataysLti. ||4|| 

PACCAVEKKHANA. 



Evam me sutam : Ekaip saraayaip Bhagava Siivatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Anathapindikassa arame. Tatra kho 
Bhagava bhikkhu amantesi : * bhikkhavo ' ti 'bhadante' ti. 
Te bhikkhu Bhagavato paccassosum. Bhagava etad avoca : 

"Dasa ime, bhikkhave, dhamma pabbajitena abhinham 
pacca vekkh itabba. 

Katame dasa ? 

1) Vevanuiyamhi ajjhupagato ti pabbajitena abhinham 
pacca vekkhitabbam. 

2) Parapatibaddha me jivika ti pabbajitena abhinham pacca- 
vekkhitabbam. 

3) Aiino me akappo karaniyo ti pabbajitena abhinham 
pacca vekkhitabbam . 

4) Kacci nu kho me attasllato na upavadatiti pabbajitena 
abhinham paccavekkhitabbam. 

5) Kacci nu kho mam anuvicca vinnil sabrahmacari sllato 
na upavadantiti pabbajitena abhinham paccavekkhitabbam. 

6) Sabbehi me piyehi manapehi njinabhavo vinabhavo ti 
pabbajitena abhinham paccavekkhitabbam. 

7) Kamraassa komhi kamma-dayado kamma-yoni kamma- 
bandhu kamma-patisarano, yam kamraam karissami kalyiinam 
va papakarn va tassa day ado bhavissamiti pabbajitena abhin- 
ham paccavekkhitabbam. 

8) Eatham bhutassa me rattindiva vitipatantiti pabbaji- 
tena abhinham paccavekkhitabbam. 



84 MAHAMANGALASUTTA. 

9) Kacci nu kho 'ham sunnagiire abhiramiimiti pabbajU 
tena abhinhara paccavekkhitubbara. 

lOj Atthi nu kho rae uttariraanussadhammii alaraan'ya- 
nanadassanaviseso adhigato so *hara pacchime kiile sabbrah- 
raacarl puttho na manku bhavissiiiuiti pabbajitena abhinham 
paccavekkhitubbara. 

Ime kho bhikkhave dasa dhammu pabbajitena abhinham 
paccavekkhitabba ti. 

Idam avoca Bhagavii : attamanii te bhikkhu Bhagavato 
bhasitam abhinandun ti. 

DASADHAMMASITTTA. 



Evam me sutani : Ekara samayam Bhagava Savatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Aniithapindikassa arame. Atha kho 
afinatara devata abhikkantiiyii rattiya abhikkantavanna 
kevalakappam Jetavanam obhiisetva, yena Bhagava ten' 
upasankami upasankamitva Bhagavantam abhivadetvii 
ekamantam atthasi. Ekaraantam ^hita kho sa devata Bhaga- 
vantam gathaya ajjhabhasi : 

" Bahu deva manussa ca mangalani acintayum 
Akankharaana sotthanam : bruhi mahgalara utta- 
mam." || 1 1| 

* Asevana ca balanam, panditiinafica sevana, 

Puja ca pujanlyanam : etam mangalam uttamara.' ||2|| 

* Patirupa desaviiso ca pubbe ca katapunfiata 

Atta sammapanidhi ca : etam mangalam uttamam.' || 3 1| 

* Bahusaccafica sipparica vinayo ca susikkhito, 
Subhasita ca yii vaca : etam mangalain uttamam.' || 4 1| 

* Matapitu upatthiinara putta-diirassa sangaho 
Anakula ca kammantii: etam mangalam uttamam.' ||5|| 

* Diinanca dhammacariya ca fiatakiinanca sangaho 
Anavajjani kammani: etam mangalam uttamam.* ||6|| 

* Arati virati papa majjapiina ca saftftamo 

Appamado ca dhammesu: etam mangalam uttamam.' ||7|| 



RATANASUTTA. ^ 85 

* Garavo ca niviito ca santutthi ca katafifiufa 

Kiileua dliarama-savanam: etam mangaluni uttamam.* || 8|| 

* KhantI ca sovacassata saraanananca dassanara 

Kalena dhamma-sukacchu: etam mangalam uttamam.' ||9 1| 

* Tapo ca brahmacariya ca ari3'a8accana' dassanam 
Nibbana-sacchikiriya ca: etam mangalam uttamam.' ||10|| 

* Phutthassa lokadharamehi cittara yassa na karapati 
Asokam virajam khemam: etam mangalam uttamam.' || 11 1| 

* Etadisani katviina sabbattha-m-aparajita 

Sabbatha sotthim gacchanti: tesam mangalam utamam 
ti.' II 12 II 

MAHAMANGALASUTTAM. 



Yanidha bhutani samagatani 
bhummiini va yani va antalikkhe 
sabb' evabliiitii suraana bhavantu 
atho pi sakkacca sunantu bhasitam. || 1 1| 

Tasmahi bhuta nisiimetha sabbe 
mettam karotha manusiya pajaya 
diva ca ratto ca haranti ye balim 
tasmahi ne rakkhattha appamatta. ||2|| 

Yam kiiici vittam idha va hurara va 
saggesu va yain ratanam panltam 
na no samam atthi Tathiigatena 
idaTn pi buddhe ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 3 1| 

Khayam viriigam amatam panltam 
Yad ajjhagii Sakyamuni samiihito 
na tena dhammena sam' atthi kifici. 
idam pi dhamme ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. 11 4 11 



86 BATANASUTTA. 

Yam buddhasettho parivannuyi sucim 
samudhim anantarikail Aatn uhu 
samadhinu tena samo na vijjati 
idam pi dhamme ratanara panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 5 1| 

Ye puggalu attha satam pasattha 
cattari etani yugani honti 
te dakkhineyya Sugatassa siivaka 
etesu dinnjini mahapphalani. 
idarn pi sanghe ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi botu. || 6 1| 

Ye suppayuttji manasii dalhena 
nikkcTraino Gotama-siisanamhi 
te pattipattii amatam vigayha 
laddhji raudha nibbutim bbunjamauii 
idam pi sanghe ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 7 1| 

Yath' indakhllo pathavira site siyii 
catubbhi viitebhi asampakampiyo 
tathApamara sappurisara vadami 
yo ariyasaccani avecca passati 
idam pi sanghe ratanaip panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. ||8 i| 

Ye ariya-saccani vibhavayanti 
gam'bhlra-pannena sudesitani 
kincapi te honti bhusapparaatta 
na te bhavam atthamam jidiyanti 
idam pi sanghe ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 9 1| 

Sahav* assa dassana-sampadiiya 
tay* assu dhammii jahitii bhavanti 
sakkilyaditthi vicikicchitanca 
sThibbatam va pi yad atthi kifici 
catuh' apayehi ca vippamutto 



RATANASUTTA. $7 

cha cabhitthjlniini abhabbo katum 
idam pi saiighe ratanain panltam. 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 10 |j 

Kiiicapi so kararaam karoti pilpakam 
kciyena vacii uda cetasii va 
abhabbo so tassa paticchiidaya 
abhabbata ditthapadassa vutto 
idam pi sanghe ratanain panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 11 1| 

Vanappagumbe yatha phussitagge 
gimhana-mase pathamasmim gimhe 
tathupamam dhammavaram adesayl 
nibbanagarairn pararaam hitiiya 
idam pi buddhe ratanain panitani 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 12 1| 

Varo varaiifiu varado varaharo 
anuttaro dhammavaram adesayl 
idam pi buddhe ratanam panltam 
etena saccena suvatthi hotu. ||13|| 

Khinara puranam navam n'atthi sambhavam 

virattacitta ayatike bhavasmim 

te khina-bija avirulhicchanda 

nibbanti dhTra yathaj'am padlpo 

idam pi sanghe ratanam panltam 

etena saccena suvatthi hotu. || 14 1| 

Yiinidha bhutani samagatani 
bhummiini va yani va antalikkhe 
Tathiigatam deva-manussa-pujitam 
Buddhara namassiiraa suvatthi hotu. || 15 1| 

Yanidha bhutani samagatani 
bhummani va yani va antalikkhe 
Tathagatam deva-manussa-pujitara 
dhammam namassama suvatthi hotu. l|16l| 



88 KARANlYAMETTASUTTA. 

Yitiiidha bhutani saroilgatuni 
bhummJini vii yuni va antalikkho 
Tathiigatain de vumanussa-puj itam 
sangbam namassuma suvattbi hotu. ||17| 

RATANA8UTTAM. 



Karanlyara attbakusalena 

yan tain santara pad am abbisamecca 

Sakko uju ca siiju ca 

siivaco c'assa mudu anatimual. || 1 1| 

Santussako ca subbaro ca 
appakicco ca sallabukavutti 
santindriyo ca nipako ca 
appagabbbo ca kulesu ananugiddbo. ||2| 

Na ca kbuddara samiicare kiilci 
yena vinnii pare upavadeyyum 
sukbino vii kbemino bontu 
sabbe satta bbavantu sukbitattu. ||4|| 

Ye keci panabbut* attbi 
tasii vii tbiivarii vii anavasesii 
digbii vii ye mabantii vii 
majjbimii rassakii anuku tbillii. ||4|| 

Dittbii vii ye va adittbii 

ye ca diire vasanti avidiire 

bbiltii vii sambbavesi vii 

sabbe sattii bbavantu sukkbitattii. || 5 1| 

Na paro param nikubbetba 
n&timafinetba kattbaci nam kinci 
byarosanii patigba-sannii 
n&tlfiamannasa dukkbam iccbeyya. ||6|| 

Miitii yatbii niyam puttam 
iiyusii ekaputtam anurakkbe 



KIIANDHAPARITTA. 89 

evam pi sabbabhutesu 

manasam bhiivaye aparimanam. || 7 1| 

Mettafica sabbalokasmira 
manasam bhavaye aparimanam 
uddham adho ca tiriyanca 
asambiidhara averara asapattam. ||8|| 

Tittham carara nisinno va 

sayiino va yavat' assa vigatamiddho 

etam satim adhittheyya 

brahmam etam viharam idha-m-ahu. ||9|| 

Dittbiiica anupagamma 

sllavii dassanena sampanno 

kamesu vineyya gedham 

nahi jatu gabbhaseyyam punar etiti. || 10 1| 

karanIyamettasuttam. 



Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagavji Savatthiyam 
vlharati Jetavane Anathapindikassa iiriime. Tena kho pana 
samayena Savatthiyam auiiataro bhikkhu ahina dattho 
kalankato hoti. Atha kho sarabahula bhikkhu yena Bha- 
gava ten' upasaiikamirasu upasankamitvu Bhagavantara 
abhivadetvii ekamantam nisldimsu ekamantaiu nisinna kho 
te bhikkhu Bhagavantam etad avocum : 

* Idha bhante, Savatthiyam aufiataro bhikkhu ahina dattho 
kalankato ti.' 

"Na ha nuna so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imani cattari 
ahiiajakuhTni mettena cittena phari. Sace hi so bhikkhave 
bhikkhu cattari ahirajakuhTni mettena cittena phareyya : na 
hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ahina dattho kiilara kareyya." 

Katamani cattari ahirajakuUmi ? Virupakkham ahiraja- 
kulain, Eriipatham ahirajakulam Chabyaputtara ahiraja- 
kulam Kanhjigotaraakam ahirajakulam. 

Na ha nuna so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imani cattari ahiraja- 
kuliini mettena cittena phari. Sace hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu 



90 METTASUTTA. 

imitni cattilri ahiiajukulani mcttena cittena pharcyya, na hi 
80 bhikkhave bhikkhu ahinii dattho kiilam kareyya. 

Anujiinami, bhikkhave, inailni cattiiri ahimjakulani mettena 
cittena pharitum : attaguttiya attarakkbiiya attaparittayati. 

Idam avoca Bhagava. Idam vatva Sugato athdparaai etad 
avoca satthii : 

Viriipakkhehi me mettara, mettam Eriipathehi me 
Chabyiiputtehi me mettam, mettam Kanhagotamakehi 

ca. mil 

Apadakehi me mettara, mettam dvipiidakehi me 
catuppadehi me mettam mettam bahuppadehi me. ||2|| 

Ma mam apudako himsi, ma mam himsi dvipadako 

ma mam cattuppado himsi ma mam himsi bahuppado. || 3 1| 

Sabbe satta sabbe panii sabbe bhuta ca kevala 

sabbe bhadrani passantu, ma kinci papam agama ||4|| 

Appamiino buddho, appamjino dhammo, appamano sangho ; 
pamanavantani sirimsapani ahivicchika satapadi unnana- 
bhisarabu musika. 

Kata me rakkhii, kata me paritta, patikkamantu bhQtani, 
so 'ham namo Bhagavato namo sattannam sammasambuddha- 
nam. 

KHANDHAPARITTAM. 



Evam me sutam : Ekara samayam Bhagava Savatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Anathapindikassa ariirae. Tatra kho 
Bhagava bhikkhii amantesi: "bhikkhave" ti, "bhadante" ti. 
Te bhikkhii Bhagavato paccassosum. Bhagava etad avoca : 
"Mettaya, bhikkhave, cetovimuttiya, iisevitaya, bhiivitaya, 
bahullkatiiya, yanikataya, vatthukataya, anutthitiiya pari- 
citaya susamaraddhiiya ekadasdnisarasa patikankhii. 

Katame ekadasa ? 

1) Sukham supati. 

2) sukham patibujjhuti. 

8) na pitpakam supinam passati. 



METTANISAMSAM. 91 

4) manussanam piyo hoti. 
6) amanussilnam piyo hoti. 

6) devata rakkhanti. 

7) nassa aggi va visara vii sattham va kamati. 

8) tuvatam cittara saraadhlyati. 

9) mukhavanno vippasldati. 

10) asammulho kalara karoti. 

11) uttarim appativijjhanto brahmalokupago hot! ti. 
Mettaj'a, bhikkhave, cetovimuttiya asevittiya bhavitaya 

baliullkata3'a yanikataya vatthukatiiya anutthitaya paricitaya 
susamaraddhaya : ime ekadasanisarasa patikahkhii ti. 

Idam avoca Bhagava : attamana te bhikkhu Bhagavato 
bhasitam abliinandunti. 

METTASUTTAM. 



Pahuta-bhakkho bbavati vippavuttho saka ghara 
bahu nam upajlvaati yo mittanam na dubhati. || 1 1| 

Yam yam janapadam yati nigiime rajadhaniyo 
sabbattha piijito hoti yo mittanam na dubhati. ||2|j 

Nissa cora pasahanti natimanfieti khattiyo 
sabbe amitte tarati yo mittanam na dubhati. ||3|| 

Akkuddho sagharam eti sabhaya patinandito 
natlnam uttamo hoti yo mittanam na dubhati. ||4|| 

Sakkatva sakkato hoti garu hoti sagaravo 
Tanna-kitti-bhato hoti yo mittanam na dubhati. || 5 1| 

Pujako labhate piijara vandako pativandanara 
yasokittinca pappoti yo mittanam na dubhati. ||6|| 

Aggi yatha pajjalati devata va virocati 

siriya ajahito hoti yo mittaaam na dubhati. ||7H 

Gavo tassa pajiiyanti khette vuttara viruhati 
puttanam phalam asnati yo mittanam na dubhati. ||8|| 



92 MORAPARITTA. 

Darlto pabbatiito vil rukkhiito patito naro 

cuto patittham labhati yo inittiiuam na dubhati. ||9|| 

Virulharanlasantiinam nigrodham iva raiiluto 
amitta nappasahanti yo raittiinam na dubhatiti. ||10|| 

METTANISAMSAM. 



Udet* ayain cakkhumii ekariijii 

ha^rissa-vanno pathavippabhiiso, 

tani tam namassarni harissavannam pat.havippabhiisam, 

tay' ajja guttii viharemu divasam. || 1 1| 

Ye briihraanii vedagu sabbadhamrae 

te me namo te ca mam piilayantu, 

Nam' atthu buddhilnam, nam' atthu bodhiyii ! 

namo vimuttanam, namo vimuttiyii ! || 2 || 

Imam so parittam katvii, moro carati esanu. 

Apet* ayam cakkhuma ekaraja 

harissavanno pathavippabhiiso, 

tam tam namassarni harissavannam pathavippabhiisam 

tay' ajja guttii viharemu rattirn. || 3|| 

Ye brahraanii vedagu sabbadhamrae 

te me namo te ca mam piiUiyantu, 

Nam' atthu buddhiinam, nam' atthu bodhiyii! 

namo vimuttiinara, namo vimuttiyii ! \\4 |) 

Imam so parittam katvii, moro viisara akappayiti. 
MORAPARITTA M. 



Evam ne sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagavii Siivatthiyara 
viharati, Jetavane Aniithapindikassa iiriime. Tena kho pana 
samayena Candiraii devaputto Riihuhii asurindena gahlto 
hoti. Atha kho Candimii devaputto Bhagavantam anussara- 
mano tiiyam vehlyara imam giithain abhiisi : 



CANDArARITTA. 03 

* Namo te Buddha-v!r* atthu I 
vippamutto 'si sabbadhi 
sambiidha-patipanno 'smi 
tassa rae saranam bhavati.' || 1 1| 

Atha kho Bhagavii Candimara devaputtam arabbha Eiihum 
asurindam gathaya ajjhabbasi. 

" Tatbugatam arabantam 
Candima saranam gato 
Rabu ! Candam pamuncassu 
Buddbu lokanukampakati." ||2|| 

Atba kbo Rabu asurindo Candimam devaputtam muncitvii 
taramanarupo yena Yepacitti asurindo ten' upasaukami 
upasankamitva samviggo lomabattbajato ekamantam attbasi 
ekamantara tbitara kbo Kabum asurindam Vepacitti asurindo 
giitbaya ajjbabbiisi : 

** Kin nu santaramiino 'va 
Eahu ! Candam pamuncasi 
samviggarupo agamraa 
kin nu bbito 'va tittbasitl." ||3|| 

* Sattadba me pbale muddba 
jivanto na sukbam labbe. 
Buddbagiitbabbiglto 'mbi 

no ce munceyya Candiman ti. ||4l| 

CANDAPARITTA .. 



Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bbagava Siivattbiyain 
vibarati Jetavane Anatbapindikassa arame. Tena kbo pana 
samayena Suriyo devaputto Rabunti asurindena gablto boti. 

Atba kbo Suriyo devaputto Bbagavantam anussaramauo 
tayam velayam imam gatbam abbasi : 

' Narao te buddba vir* atlbu ! 
vippamutto 'si sabbadbi 
sambadbapatipanno 'smi 
tassa me saranam bbav&ti.' II 1 II 



94 SURIYAPARITTA. 

Atha kho Bhagava Suriyam devaputtam iirabbha Rahum 
asurindam guthiiya ajjhabhusi: 

" Tathiigatam arahantam 
Suriyo saranam gato 
Rahu ! Suriyam pamuncassu 
Buddha lokinukampakati." ||2|| 

" Yo andhakiire tamasi pabharikaro 

verocano mandall uggatejo 

ma Riihu gill caram antalikkbe 

pajam mama Rahu pamufica Suriyan ti." ||3|| 

Atha kho Riihu asurindo Suriyam devaputtam pe 

* Sattadhii me phale muddha 
jivanto na sukham labhe 
Buddhagiithabhigito 'mhi : 
no ce muficeyya Suriyan ti.' ||4|| 

SURIYAPARITTAM. 



Evam me sutam. Ekam eamayam Bhagava Siivatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Aniithapindikassa ariime. Tatra kho 
Bhagava bhikkhii jiraantesi "bhikkhavo" ti, "bhadante" ti. 
te bhikkhu Bhagavato paccassosum. Bhagava etad 
avoca : || 1 II 

" Bhutapubbam, bhikkhave, devasura-sangiirao samu- 
pabbniho ahosi. Atha kho, bhikkhave, Sakko devanam 
indo deve Tiivatimse iimantesi : 

" Sace, mjiristi, deviinam sangamagatanam uppajjeyya bha- 
yam vji chambhitattam vii lomahamso vii mam eva tasmim 
samaye dhajaggam uUokeyyiitha. Mamara hi vo dhajaggam 
uUokayatam yam bhavissati bhayam vii chambhitattam va 
lomahamso vii so pahlyassati. ||2|| 

No ce me dhajaggam uUokeyyiitha, atha kho Pajiipatissa 
devariljassa dhajaggam uUokeyyiitha. Pajiipatissa hi fo deva- 
riijassa dhajaggam ullokayatara ; yam bhavissati bhayam 
vii chambhitattam vii lomahamso vii so pahlyissati. || 3 1| 



DHAJAOGA PARITTA. 95 

No ce Pujjipatissa devariijassa dhajaggain uUokeyyutha, 
atha Varunassa devariijassa dhajaggam uUokeyyutha. 
Varuuassa hi vo devariijassa dhajaggam uUokayatara yam 
bhavissati bhayara vii chambhitattam vii lomahamso vii so 
pahlyissati. ||4|| 

No ce Varunassa devariijassa dhajaggam ullokeyyiitha, 
atha Isiiuassa devarajassa dhajaggam ullokeyyiitha. Isa- 
nassa hi vo devariijassa dhajaggam uUokayatara yam bha- 
vissati bhayam va chambhitattam va lomahamso va so 
pahlyissati. ||5|| 

Tam kho pana bhikkhave Sakkassa vii devanam indassa 
dhajaggam . uUokayatam : Pajiipatissa vii deviinara riijassa 
dhajaggam uUokayatam : Varunassa vii devariijassa dhajaggam 
uUokayatam : Isiiuassa vii devariijassa dhajaggam uUoka- 
yatam : yam bhavissati bhayam va chambhitattam vii loma- 
hamso vii so pahlyetha pi no pahlyetha. II 6 1| 

Tam kissa hetu ? 

"Sakko, bhikkhave, deviinam indo avitariigo avitadoso 
avitamoho bhirucchambhi uttriisi phaliiyiti." [| 7 jj 

Ahafica kho bhikkhave evam vadami : " Sace tumhakam, 
bhikkhave, arauiiagatiinam va rukkhamulagatanam vii suuna- 
giiragatiinam vii uppajjeyya bhayam vii chambhitattam vii 
lomahamso vii mam eva tasmim samaye anussareyyiitha : 

Iti pi so Bhagava araham samma-sambuddho vijja-carana- 
sampanno sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisadamma-sarathi 
sattha devamanussanam buddho Bhagavii ti. ||8|| 

Mamam hi vo bhikkhave anussaratam yam bhavissati 
bhayam vii chambhitattam va lomahamso pahlyissati. 

No ce mam anussareyyiitha atha dhammani anussareyyatha : 
Sviikkhiito Bhagavatii dhammo sanditthiko akiiliko ehipassiko 
opanayiko paccattam veditabbo vinnuhiti. Dhammam hi vo 
bhikkhave anussaratam yam bhavissati bha3'am va chambhi- 
tattam vii lomahamso va so pahlyissati. ||9|| 

No ce dhammam anussareyyiitha atha sangham anussa- 
reyyiitha. Supatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, ujupati- 
panno Bhagavato siivakasahgho, uiiyapatipanno Bhagavato 
siivakasahgho, siimlcipatipanno Bhagavato siivakasangho ; 
yadidam cattiiri purisayugiiui attha purisapuggalii esa sava- 



96 DHAJAGGA TARITTA. 

kasangho : iihuneyyo pjihuneyyo dakkhineyyo anjalikaranlyo 
anuttaram punna-khettam lokass&ti. 

Sangham hi vo bhikkhave anussaratam yam bhavissati 
bhayani vii chambhitattam vii lomahamso va so pahl- 
yissati. ||10|| 

Tarn kissa hetu ? 

TathcTgato hi, bhikkhave, araham samraasambuddho 
vltariigo vitadoso vltamoho abhlru acchatnbhi anutrasi 
ophahlyiti. ||11|| 

Idam avoca Bhagavii idam vatvana Sugato athiparam 
etad avoca sattha : 

"Aranfie rukkha miilevii sunfiagarevji bhikkhavo 
anussaretha sambuddham bhayaiu tumhiikam no si^'ii." || 1 1| 

" No ce Buddham sareyyatha lokajettham narasabhara : 
atha dhammam sareyyatha niyyanikain sudesitam." i|2|| 

*' No ce Dhammam sareyyatha niyyanikam sudesitam 
atha sangham sareyyatha punfiakkhettam anuttaram." j| 3 1| 

" Evam Buddham sarantanam dhammam sanghanca 
bhikkhavo 
bhayatn va chambhitattam vii lomahamso na hessa- 

titi>||4ii 

DHAJAGGA PARITTAM. 



Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagavii Riijagahe 
viharati Veluvane Kalandakaniviipe. Tena kho pana sama- 
yena ayasma Mahiikassapo pipphaliguhayam viharati, 
abadhiko dukkhito balhagihlno. Atha kho Bhagavii silyan- 
hasaraayam patisaUiinii vutthito, yen' iiyasmii Mahiikassapo 
ten' upasahkami upasahkamitva pailuatte iisane nisTdi. 
Nisajja kho Bhagavii iiyasmantam Makiikassapam etad 
avoca : 

" Kacci te Kassapa khamanlyam, kacci yapanlyam, kacci 
dukkhiivedanii patikkamanti no abhikkamanti. Patikkamo 
'fiiinam pariniiya ti no abhikkamo " ti. 



MAnAKASSArABOJJHANGA. 97 

*Na me, bhante, khamanlyam na yapanlyam balhii me 
dukkhitvedanii abhikkamanti no patikkamanti. Abhikkamo 
'siinam pafinayati no patikkarao ti. 

" Satt' ime, Kassapa, boj jhangii may:! saramJid-akkhJitiT bhii- 
vitii bahullkata abhinnjiya sambodhaya nibbaniiya samvattanti. 

1) Satisambojjharigo kho, Kassapa, maya saramad-akkhato 
bhjlvito baliullkato abhinnaya sambodhaya nibbiinaya 
samvattati. 

2) Dhammavicayasambojjhango pe nibbiinaya sam- 
vattati. 

3) Viriyasambojjharigo pe nibbaniiya samvattati. 

4) Pitisarabojjhango pe nibbiiniiya samvattati. 

5) Passaddhisambojjhango pe nibbiiniiya samvattati. 

6) Samiidhisambojjhango pe nibbiiniiya samvattati. 

7) TJpekhasambojjharigo pe nibbiiniiya samvattati. 
Ime kho Kassapa satta boj jhangii maya sammiidakkhiita 

bhavita bahulikata abhiiiuaya sambodhiiya nibbiiniiya sam- 
vattanti ti. 

* Taggha, Bhagava, bojjhangii, taggha, Sugata, bojjhariga 
ti.' 

Idam avoca Bhagavii : attamano iiyasmii Mahiikassapo 
Bhagavato bhiisitam abhinandi. 

Yutthahi cayasmii Mahiikassapo tamhii iibiidha tatha pablno 
c&yasmato Mahiikassapassa so abiidho ahositi. 

MAHAKASSAPATTHERABOJJHANGAM. 



The Mahdmoggalldnaithera hojjhahgam and the Mahd- 
eundatthera hojjhahgam agree with the preceding sutta in all 
but the name. 

Evam me sutam : Ekara samayam Bhagava Siivatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Aniithapindikassa iiriime. Tena kho pana 
samayena iiyasmii Girimiinando iibiidhiko hoti dukkhito 
biilhagihlno. Atha kho iiyasmii Anando yena Bhagavii ten* 
upasamkami upasamkamitvii Bhagavantam abhiviidetvti 
ekamantam nisldi ekamantam nisinno kho iiyasma Anando 
Bhagavantam etad avoca : 



98 GIRIMANANDASUTTA. 

Ayasma, bhante, Girimjinando abjidhiko dukkhito bajhagi- 
lano. Sjidhu bhante Bhagava ; yen* ayasma Girimanando 
ten' upasaiikaraatu anukamparn upjiday&ti. 

Sace kho tvam Ananda Girimiinandassa bhikkbuno 
upasankamitvii dasa sanfia bhaseyyasi. Thiinara kho 
pan' etam vijjati yam Girimiinandassa bhikkbuno dasa 
sanna sutvii so abildho thiiaaso patippassambheyya. 

Katame dasa sannii ? 

" Aniccasafina, anattasanna, asubhasannii, adinavasanna, 
pahanasanila, viragasannii, nirodhasanfiii, sabbaloke anabhi- 
rati sanna, sabbasahkhiiresu aniccasanna, anapanasati." 

Katama ca Ananda aniccasaiii'ia ? 

" Idh' Ananda bhikkhu, arafinagato va rukkhamulagato 
va sunnagjiragato vii iti patisancikkhati : 

Rfipam aniccara, vedanii anicca, sanna anicca, sahkharii 
anicca, vinnanam aniccan ti. Iti imesu paiicas' upiida- 
nakkhandhesu aniccanupassi viharati. Ayam vuccat' Ananda 
aniccasanna. || 1 1| 

Katama ca Ananda anattasanna ? 

Idh' Ananda pe patisancikkhati : 

Cakkhum anatta, rupam anatta, sotara anatta, jivha anatta, 
rasa anatta, kayo anatta, photthabba anatta, mano anatta, 
dhamraii anattii ti. 

Iti ime cbasu ajjhattika-bahiresu iiyatanesu anattanupassi 
viharati. Ayam vuccat' Ananda anattasanna. ||2|| 

Katama ca Ananda asubhasannji? Idh* Ananda bhikkhu 
imam eva kiiyam uddham pjidatalii, adho kesamatthakii taca- 
pariyantam puram nanappakiirassa asucino paccavekkhati. 

Atthi imasmim kjlye : kesa pe matthalungan ti. (See 
page 82). 

Iti imasmim kaye asubh&nupassl viharati. Ayam vuccat* 
Ananda asubhasanna. i| 3 1| 

Katama ca Ananda adlnavasafiria ? Idh' Ananda pe 
patisancikkhati. 



GIRIMANANDASUTTA. 99 

Bahu dukkho kho ayam kiiyo, bahu udlnavo iti imasmim 
kaje vividha iibadhji uppajjanti seyyathidain : 

Cakkhurogo, sotarogo, ghiinarogo, jivhiirogo, kiiyarogo, 
sisarogo, kannarogo, mukharogo, dantarogo, kuso, siiso, 
piniiso, daho, jaro, kucchirogo, mucchu, pakkhandika, sulo, 
visQcikii, kuttham, gando, kiliiso, soso, apam;iro, daddu, 
kandu, kacchura-khasii, vitacchika, lohitara, pittam, madhu- 
meho, amsa, pilaka, bhagandala, pitta-samutthana-abadha, 
semha-samutthana-abadha, vata-samutthana-abadha, sanni- 
patikii-abadhii, utu-viparinamaja-abadha, visama-pariharajii- 
abiidha, opaka-abadha, kammavipilka-abadha, sitam, unbam, 
jigbaccha, pipasa, uccaro, passiivo. 

Iti imasmim kiiye adinavanupassi vibarati. Ayam vuccat' 
Ananda, adlaavasauua. || 4 1| 

Katama ca Ananda pabanasanna ? Idb' Ananda bbikkbu 
uppannam kama-vitakkam nadbivaseti pajabati, viuodeti 
byantikaroti anabbavam gameti. 

Uppannam byapildavitakkam nadbivaseti pajabati vinodeti 
byantikaroti anabbavam gameti. 

Uppannam vihimsavitakkam nadbivaseti pajabati vino- 
deti byantikaroti anabbavam gameti. 

Uppannam uppanne papake akusale dbamme nidbiviiseti 
pajabati vinodeti byantikaroti anabbavam gameti. 

Ayam vuccat* Ananda pabanasaniia. ||5|| 

Katama c' Ananda viragasanua ? 

Idb' Ananda bbikku pe patisancikkbati. 

Etam. santam etam panltam yadidam sabbasankbara- 
samatbo sabbClpadbi patinissago tanbakkbayo virago nibba- 
^an tL 

Ayam vuccat* Ananda viragasanna. ||6|| 

Katama ca Ananda nirodbasanna ? 
Idb* Ananda bbikkbu pe patisancikkbati : 
Etam santam etam panltam yadidam sabbasankbiirasamatbo 
8abb(^padbi patinissaggo tanbakkbayo nirodbo nibbanan ti. 
Ayam vuccat' Ananda nirodbasanila. |j 7 1| 



100 GIRIMANANDASUTTA. 

Katamii c' Ananda sabbaloke anabhiratisafinii ? 

Idh* Ananda bhikkhu ye loke upayupiidana cetaso 
adhitthan&bhinivesdnusayil te pajahanto viramati na upadi- 
yanto. Ayam vuccat' Ananda sabba loke anabhirati sauna, 1| 8 1| 

Katama c' Ananda sabbasankharesu aniccasafifia ? 

Idh' Ananda bhikkhu sabbasankharesu atthiyati harayati 
jigucchati. Ayam vuccat' Ananda sabbasankharesu anicca- 
sauua. II 9 II 

Katatnii c' Ananda anjipiinasati ? 

Idh' Ananda bhikkhu arafinagato vu rukkhamiilagato va 
sunnagiiragato \a. nlsldati pallankam abhujitva ujum kayam 
panidhaya pariraukkham satim upatthapetva so sate va 
assasati sate passasati: 

Digham va assasanto digham assasamiti pajiiniiti. 

Digham vji passanto digham passasiimiti pajanati. 

Rassam va assasanto rassam assasamiti pajanati. 
Rassam va passasanto rassain passasiimiti pajanati. 

Sabbakayam patisamvedl assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Sabbakayam patisamvedl passasissainiti sikkhati. 

Passambhayam kayasankharam assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Passambhayam kayasankharam passasissamiti sikkhati. 

Piti-patisamvedl assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Piti-patisamvedl passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Sukha- patisamvedl assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Sukha-patisamvedl passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Citta-sahkhiira-patisamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Gitta-sahkhiira-patisamvedl passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Passambhayam cittasahkhiiram assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Passambhayam cittasankhiiram passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Citta-patisaravedl assasissamiti sikkhati. 
Oitta-patisamvedl passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Abhippamodayam cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Abhippamodayam cittam passasissiimiti sikkhati. 



ATANATIYASUTTA. 101 

Samjidayam cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Saniadayam cittam passasissamiti sikkhati. 

Vimocayam cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
Viraocayam cittam passasissamiti sikkhati. 

AniccanupassT assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
AniccanupassI passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

ViriiganupassI assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
ViriiganupassI passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Nirodhanupassi assasissiimiti sikkhati. 
NirodhanupassI passasissamiti sikkhati. 

PatinissagganupassT assasissamiti sikkhati. 
PatinissagganupassI passasissiimiti sikkhati. 

Ayam vuccat' Ananda aniipiiniisati. ||10|j 

Sace kho tvam Ananda Girimiinandassa bhikkhum imii 
dasa saiiuii sutva so abadho thanaso patippassambheyyati. 

Atha kho ayasma Anando Bhagavato santike imii dasa 
sarina uggahetvii : yen' ayasmii Girimanando ten' upasankami 
upasankamitvii ayasmato Girimanandassa ima dasa sauna 
abhiisi. 

Atha kho iiyasmato Girimiinadassa imii dasa sanfiii sutva 
so abiidho thanaso patippassambhi. 

Vutthahi cayasraii Girimanando tamhii iibiidhii tatha 
pahino ca panayasmato Girimanandassa so iibiidho ahositi. 
GIRIMANANDASUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagavii Riijagahe 
viharati Gijjhakiite pabbate. Atha kho cattiiro mahiiriijii 
mahatiyii ca Yakkha-seniiya mahatiyii ca Gandhabba-seniiya 
mahatiya ca Kumbhanda-seniiya mahatiyii ca Niiga-seniiya 
catuddisam rakkham thapetvii catuddisam gumbarn thapetvii 
catuddisam avaranam thapetvii abhikkantiiya rattiyii abhik- 



102 ATANATIYASUTTA. 

kautavannii kevalakappam Gijjhakutam obhasetva : yena 
Bhagava ten' upasankamimsu : upasankamitva Bhagavantam 
abhiviidetvii ekamantam nisldimsu. fj 1 1| 

Te pi kho Yakkha app' ekacce Bhagavantam abhivadetva 
ekamantam nisldimsu ; app' ekacce yena Bhagavata saddhim 
sammodimsu saramodanlyara katham saranlyam vltisaretva 
ekamantam nisldimsu; app' ekacce yena Bhagava ten' anjalim 
panametva ekamantam nisldimsu ; app' ekacce niima gottam 
savetva ekamantam nisldimsu ; app' ekacce tunhlbhuta eka- 
mantam nisldimsu. ||2|| 

Ekamantam nisinno kho Vessavanno maharaja Bhaga- 
vantam etad avoca : 

Santi hi, bhante, ujarji Yakkhji Bhagavato appasanna: 
santi hi, bhante, uliinT Yakkha Bhagavato pasannii : santi 
hi, bhante, majjhima Yakkha appasanna : santi hi, bhante, 
majjhima Yakkha pasanna: santi hi, bhante, nica Yakkhji 
Bhagavato appasanna: santi hi, bhante, nIca Yakkha Bha- 
gavato pasanna. ||3|| 

Yebhuyyena kho pana bhante Yakkha appasanna yeva 
Bhagavato tam kissa hetu ? 

"Bhagava hi, bhante, piinatipata veramaniya dhamraam 
deseti ; adinntidana veramaniya dhammam deseti ; kamesu 
micchacara veramaniya dhammam deseti ; musavada vera- 
maniya dhamraam deseti ; suramerayamajja-pamadatthanii 
veramaniya dhammam deseti." || 4 1| 

"Yebhuyyena kho pana, bhante, Yakkha appativirata yeva 
panatipiitii, appativirata adinnudanii, appativirata kamesu 
micchaciira, appativirata musavjidii, appativirata sura- 
merayamajjapamadatthana, tesam tam hoti appiyam amana- 
pam."||5||^ 

"Santi hi bhante Bhagavato savakii arafiue vanapanthani 
panthani seniisanjini patisevanti appasaddani appanigghosani 
vijanavatani manussa-rahaseyyakani patisallana-siiruppani : 

Tattha santi uliira Yakkha niviisino, ye imasmim Bhagavato 
pavacane appasanna. Tesam pasiidaya ugganhjitu, bhante, 
Bhagava Atanatiyam rakkham bhikkhunarn, bhikkhunlnam, 
upasakanam upjisikanam guttiyii rakkhjiya avihirasaya 
phasuviharay^ti." Adhivasesi Bhagava tunhlbhavena. Atha 



ATANATIYASUTTA. 103 

kho Yessavano raahjirajii Bhagavato adhiviisanara viditva 
tayam veliiyam imam Atiinatiyam rakkham abhasi : ||6|| 

Yipassissa nam' atthu cakkhumantassa sirlmato ! 
Sikkhissa pi nam' atthu sabba-bhutanukampino ! ||1|| 

Yessabhussa nam' atthu nahjitakassa tapassino ! 

Nam' atthu Kakusandhassa Milra-sena-pamaddino ! ||2|| 

Koniigamanassa nam* atthu brahmanassa vuslmato ! 
Kassapassa nam' atthu vippamuttassa sabbadhe ! || 3 1| 

Anglrasassa nam' atthu Sakyaputtassa sirlmato ! 

Yo imam dhammam adesesi sabba-dukkha pan udunam! ||4|| 

Ye capi nibbuta loke yathabhutara vipassisum 

Te jana apisuna ca mahanta vitasarada 

Hitam devamanussanam yam naraassanti Gotamam 

Yijjiicarana-sampannam mahantam vltasaradam. i|5|| 

Yato uggacchati suriyo adicco mandali mahai, 
Yassa c'uggacchamanassa samvarl pi nirujjhati, 
Yassa c'uggate suriye divaso ti pavuccati. ||6|| 

Rahado pi tattha gambhiro samuddo saritodako 
Evara tarn tattha jiinanti samuddo saritodako 
Ito sa purimii disa iti nam acikkhati jano. ||7|| 

Yam disara abhipaleti mahjiraja yassasi so 
Gandhabbiinam adhipiiti Dhatarattho iti namaso 
E-amati naccagltehi Gandhabbehi purakkhato. || 8 1| 

Putta pi tassa bahavo eka nama ti me sutam 
Asltim dasa eko ca Indanama mahabbala. || 9 1| 

Te ca pi Buddham disviina Buddham iidiccabandhunara 
Durato va naraassanti mahantam vltasaradam. ||10|| 

Namo te puris&janfia ! namo te puris' uttama ! 
Kusalena samekkhesi amanussil pi tam vandanti ! 
Sutam n'etam abhinhaso tasma evara vademase. II 1111 

Jinam vandatha Gotamam ! jinara vandjima Gotamam, 
Yijjacaranasampannara Buddham vandiima Gotamam! ||12j| 

Yena Pefa pavuccanti pisunii pitthiraamsika 
Fanatipiitino ludda cora nekatika jana. II 13 1| 



104' AT4NATIYASUTTA. 

Ito sii dukkhinJI disa. iti nam iicikkhati jano 
Yam disam abhipilleti inaliiiraja yasasslso 
KurabhandJinam adhipati Virulho iti niima so 
Ramati naccagltehi Kurabhandehi pur' akkhuto. II 14 1| 

Putta pi tassa bahavo eka nama ti me sutain 
Asltim dasa eko ca Indanamit mahabbala || 15 |j 

Te ca pi Buddhara disvana Buddhara iidicca baiidhunam 
Durato va namassanti mahantam vltasaradam. ||16|| 

Namo te purisajanna ! namo te puris' uttama ! 
Kusalena samekkhasi amanussii pi tarn vandanti ! 
Sutain n' etam abhinhaso tasma evam vandemase. || 17 1| 

Jinam vandatha Gotamam, jinam vandama Gotamam, 
Vijjiicaranasampannam Buddham vandama Gotamam ! II 18 1 

Yatha c' uggacchati suriyo adicco mandall maha 
Yassa c' uggaccbamanassa divaso pi nirujjhati 
Yassa coggate suriye samvariti pavuccati 
Kahado pi tattha gambhiro samuddo saritodako 
Evam tarn tattha jananti samuddo saritodako. || 19 1| 

Ito sa pacchimji disii iti nam iicikkhati jano 
Yam disam abhipiileti mahjinlja yasassi so 
Nagiinam ca adhipati Viriipakkho iti niimaso 
Kamati naccagltehi Nagehi pur^kkhato. \\20\\ 

Puttii pi tassa bahavo eka nama ti me sutam 
Asltim dasa eko ca Indauilma mahabbala. I|21|| 

Te c&pi Buddham disvana Buddham adiccabandhunam 
Diirato va namassanti mahantam vitasilradam. || 22 1| 

Namo te purisajanna, namo te puris* uttama 
Kusalena samekkhasi amanussii pi tarn vandanti 
Sutam n'etam abhinhaso tasmii evam vandemase ! II23II 

Jinam vandatha Gotamam ! jinam vandiima Gotamam 
Vijjiicaranasampannam Buddham vandiima Gotamam ! 
Yena Uttara-kururammii Mahilmeril Sudassano 
Manussii tattha jiiyanti amamii apariggahii. ||24|| 



ATANATIYASUTTA. 105 

IsTa te bljarn pavapanti na pi nlyanti nangala 
Akattha-pakimam siilim paribhunjanti manussa. I|25|| 

Akanam athusam suddham sugandham tandulapphalam 
Tundlklre pacitvana tato bhunjanti bhojanam. I|26|| 

Gavim ekakhuram katvii anuyanti diso disam 
Pasum ekakhuram katva anuyanti diso disam 
Itthi va vahanam katva anuyanti diso disam 
Purisavahanam katva anuyanti diso disam 
Kumarlvahanam katva anuyanti disa disam 
Kumaravahanam katva anuyanti diso disam. II 27 II 

Te yane abhiruhitva sabbadisa anupariyanti pacara tassa 

rajino 
Hatthi-yiinam assa-ytinam dibba-yanam upattbitam 
Pasada sivika c' eva maharajassa yassasi so 
Tassa ca nagarH ahu antalikkhe sumapita 
Atanata Kusinata Parakusinata Natapuriya Parakusita- 

niitS. II 28 II 

Uttarena Kuplvanto Janogbam aparena ca 
Navanavatiyo Ambara-ambaravatiyo Alakamanda nama 
rajadhanl. ||29|i 

Kuverassa kho pana, marisa, mabarajassa Yisana nama 

rajadhanl 
Tasma Kuvero maharaja Yessavano ti pavuccati. |j30|| 

Paccessanto pakasenti Tatola Tattala Tatotala 
Ojasi Tejasi Tatojasi Saroriija Arittho Nemi 
Rahado pi tattha DharanI niima yato megha pavassanti 
Vassa yato patayanti sabbapi tattha Bhagalavati nama 
Yattha Yakkha payirupasanti. ||31 1| 

Tattha niccaphahT rukkha namii dijaganayuta 
Mayura-koucabhi ruda-kokiladlhi vaggubhi 
Jivara-jlvaka sadd' ettha, atho otthava-cittaka 
Kukutthaka kullrakii vane pokkharasataka. || 32 1| 

Sukasalika-sadd' ettha, dandamanavakiini ca 
Sobhati sabbakalam sa Kuvera-nalini sada. 113311 



106 ATANATIYASUTTA. 

Ito sa uttam disa iti nam acikkhati jano, 
Yam disam abhipaleti mahiiraja yasassi so 
Yakkhiinam adhipati Kuvero iti niimaso 
Kamati nacca-gltehi Yakkhehi pur' akkhato. 1134 II 

Putta pi tassa bahavo eka niima ti me sutam 
Asltim dasa eko ca Inda nama mahabbula. ||35|| 

Te capi Buddham disvana Buddham ildicca bandhunam 
Durato va namassanti mahantam vitasaradam. ||36|| 

Namo te puris' ajafiua, namo te puris' uttama 

Kusalena saraekkhasi amanussa pi tarn vandanti 

Sutam n* etam abhinhaso : tasma evam yandemase ! || 37 1 

Jinam vandatba Gotamam ! Jinam vandama Gotamam ! 
Vijjacarana-sampannam Buddhain vandama Gotamam! 

Ayaln klio sii, marisa, Atanatiya rakkha, bhikkhunam 
bhikkhunlnam upasakanam upasikanam guttiya, rakkhaya, 
avihirasaya, phiisu viharjiya ti. II 7 II 

Yassa kassaci, marisa, bhikkhussa va bhikkhuniya va 
Tipjisakassa va upasikiiya v& : ayam Atanatiya rakkha sugga- 
bita bhavissati samatta pariyaputii tance amanusso Yakkho va 
Yakkhinl va Yakkhapotako va Yakkhapotika va Yakkha- 
mahamatto va Yakkhaparisajjo va Yakkhapacaro va II 8 II 

Gandhabbo va GandhabbI vil pe II 9 II 

Kumbhando va Kumbhandl va pe IIIOU 

Nago vii Naglnl va pe II 11 II 
paduttheicitto gacchantam va anugaccheyya thitam va 
upatittheyya, nisinnam va upanisldeyya, nipannam va 
upanipajjeyya. II 12 II 

Nam eso, marisa, amanusso labheyya giimesu va nigamesu 
va sakkarara va garukaram va. 

Nam eso, marisa, amanusso labheyya Alakamandaya raja- 
dhaniya vatthum va vasam va. 

Nam eso, marisa, amanusso labheyya Yakkhanam samitim 
gantum. II 1311 

Api 88U nam, marisa, amanussa anavayham pi nam 
kareyyum avivayham. Api ssu nam, marisa^ amanussa attahi 



ATANATiyASUTTA. 107 

pi paripunnahi paribhasiihi paribhaseyyura. Api ssu nam, 
miirisa, amanussa rittum pi pattam sise nikkujjeyyum 
Api ssu nam, marisa, amanussa sattadha pi assa muddham 
phiileyyum. ||14|| 

Santi hi, marisa, amanussa, candii, rudda, rabhasa, te n' eva 
maharajanara adiyanti ; na maharajanam purisakanam adi- 
yanti ; na maharajanam purisakanarn purisakanam adiyanti. 
Te kho te, marisa, amanussa maharajanam avaruddha nama 
vuccanti, seyyathiipi marisa, ||15|| 

"raiino Magadhassa vijite cora : te n' eva ranno Magadhassa 
adiyanti ; na railiio Magadhassa purisakanam adiyanti ; na 
raiino Magadhassa purisakanam adiyanti. Te kho te, marisa, 
mahacora pi ranno Magadhassa avaruddha nama vuccanti. 
Evam eva kho, marisa, santi hi amanussa canda, rudda, 
rabhasa : te n' eva maharajanam adiyanti ; na maharajanam, 
purisakanam adiyanti, na maharajanam purisakanam adi- 
yanti. Te kho 'te, marisa, amanussa avaruddha nama 
vuccanti. ||16|| 

Yo hi koci, marisa, amanusso Takkho va TakkhinI 
pe-||17|| 

Gandhabbo va Gandhabbi pe || 18 1| 

Kumbhando va Kumbhandl pe ||19|| 

Nago va Naglnl va pe || 20 1| 
padutthacitto bhikkhum va bhikkhunim va upasakam va 
upasikanam va gacchantam va anugaccheyya, thitam va 
upatittheyj'a, nisinnam va upanisldeyya, nipannam va upani- 
pajjeyya, imesam Yakkhanam Mahiiyakkhanam senapatlnam 
mahasenapatlnam upajjhapetabbam vikkanditabbam viravi- 
tabbam: ||21|| 

Ayam Yakkho ganhati, ayam Yakkho avisati, ayam 
Yakkho hetheti, ayam Yakkho himsati, ayam Yakkho 
vihimsati, ayam Yakkho na muficatiti. || 22 1| 

Katamesara Yakkhanam Mahayakkhanam sena-patinam, 
maha-seua-patlnam ? 

Indo Somo Varuno ca Bharadvajo Pajjipati 
Cando Karaascttho ca Kinnughandu Nighandu ca 
Panado Opamauuo ca Devasuto ca Matali 



108 ATAXATIYASUTTA. 

Cittaseno ca Oandhabbo Nalarujii Janesabho 
Siitsigiro Ilemavato Punnako Karatiyo Gulo 
Sivako Mucalindo ca Vessaraitto Yugandharo 
Gopjilo Suppagedho ca Ilirl NettI ca Mandiyo 
Pancalacando Alavako Pajjuno Sumano Sumukho 
Dadhimukho Mani Miiaicaro Digho Atho Serissako 
saha. II 23 II 

Imesam YakkhJinam mahiiyakkhanam senapatlnam mahii- 
senapatlnam ujjhapetabbam vikkanditabbam viravitabbara 
Ayam Yakkho ganhiiti pe na rauncatiti. ||24|| 

Ayam kho sii, marisa, AtiinJitiyii rakkhii bhikkhunara 
bhikkhunlnain upasakanam upasikiinara guttiya rakkhaya 
avihimstiya phiisuviharayjiti. II 25 II 

Handa ca' diini mayam marisa gaccbiima bahukicca mayam 
bahukaranlyati. ||26|| 

Yassa diini tumhe maharjijjino killara maririathElti. II27II 

Atha kho cattaro mahiirajaao utthayslsana, Bhagavantam 
abhivadetva padakkhinam katva tatth' ev' antaradha- 
yimsu. I|28|| 

Te pi kho Yakkha utthjiyasanji app ekacce Bhagavantam 
abhivadetva padakkhinam katvii tatth' ev' antaradhayiinsu. 

App* ekacce Bhagavata saddhira sammodimsu sammodani- 
yam katham sariinlyara vltisiiretvii tath ev' antaradhayiinsu. 

App' ekacce yena Bhagava, ten' aftjalim panametvii tatth' 
ev' antaradhiiyimsu. 

App' ekacce nilma gottain siivetvii tatth* ev' antaradhayiinsu. 

App' ekacce tunhlbhOta tatth' ev' antaradhayimsQti. 1129 j| 

" TJgganhJItha, bhikkhave, AtanJitiyam rakkham ! Pariya- 
punatha, bhikkhave Atiinatiyam rakkham ! Dharetha, bhi- 
kkhave, Atanatiyam rakkhain ! Atthasamhitiiya, bhikkhave, 
Atanatiya rakkha bhikkhunam bhikkhunlnain upasakanam 
upasikiinam guttiya rakkhaya avihimsaya phasu vilijirjiyati. 

Idam avoca Bhagava : attamana te bhikkhu Bhagavato 
bhasitam abhinandun ti. II 30 II 

ATANATIYASUTTAM. 



DHAMMACAKKA. 109 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekam saraayara Bhagavii Baranasiyam 
viharati Isipatane Migadaye. Tatra kho Bhagava panca- 
vaggiye bhikkhu iimantese: || 1 1| 

"Dve 'me, bhikkhave, anta pabbajitena na sevitabbiii. 
Katarae dve? 

*Yo c^yam kjimesu kiimasukhallikanuyogo hino gammo 
pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasamhito ; yocayam atta-kilama- 
th&nuyogodukkhoanariyoanatthasamhito; etekhobhikkhave 
ubho ante anupagamma majjhima patipadii Tathagatena 
abhisarabuddha cakkhukarani nanakarani upasamaya abhi- 
fiuiiya sambodhaya nibbanaya samvattati.' ||2 1| 

Katamii ca sa bhikkhave majjhima patipada Tathagatena 
abhisambuddha cakkhukarani nanakarani upasamaya abhi- 
nniiya sambodhaya nibbanaya samvattati ? 

" Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo, seyyathidam : Sam- 
maditthi, saramasankappo, sammaviica, sammiikammanto, 
Bammiiajlvo sammiivayamo, sammilsati, sammiisamadhi. ||3|| 

Ayam kho sii, bhikkhave, majjhima patipada Tathagatena 
abhisambuddhji cakkhukarani nanakarani upasamaya abhifi- 
naya sambodhaya nibbanaya samvattati. ||3|| 

Idam kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhara ariyasaccam : jati pi 
dukkhii, jara pi dukkha, vyadhi pi dukkha, maranam pi 
dukkham, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo 
dukkho, yam pi icchara na labhati tam pi dukkham 
sankhittena pane' upiidanakkhandha dukkha. ||4|| 

Idam kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayam ariya- 
saccam: yjiyam tanhaponobbhavikii nandi-riiga-sahagata tatra 
tatrabhinandini, seyyathidam : Kamatanha,bhavatanha, vibha- 
vatanha. ||5|| 

Idam kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam, 
yo tassa yeva tanhaya asesa-viriiga-nirodho cago patinissago 
mutti analayo. ||t>|| 



110 DHAMMACAKKA. 

Idam kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagilminl pati- 
pada ariyasaccam. 

Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo : seyyathidam samraa- 
ditthi pe sammiisaraadhi. || 7 II 

Idam dukkhara ariyasaccan ti me, bhikkhave, 
pubbe ananussutesu dhamraesu cakkhura udapiidi, ilii- 
nam udapiidi, pafinu udapadi, vijjii udapadi, aloko 
udapadi. i|8|| 

Tam kho pan' idam dukkham ariyasaccam parifiiieyan ti 
me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu pe 
parinnutan ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu 
cakkhum udapiidi, niinam udapiidi, panfla udapiidi, vijja 
udapiidi, aloko udapiidi. ||9|| 

Idam dukkhasamudayara ariyasaccam ti me, bhikkhave, 

pe aloko udapiidi. ||10|| 

Tam kho pan' idam dukkhasamudayara ariyasaccam 
pahiitabban ti me bhikkhave pe pahlnan ti me bhi- 
kkhave pe iiloko udapiidi. ||11|| 

Idam dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam ti me bhikkhave 

pe iiloko udapiidi. || 12 1| 

Tam kho pan' idam dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam sacchi- 
katabban ti me bhikkhave, la sacchikatan ti me, bhi- 
kkhave, pe iiloko udapiidi. || 13 1| 

Idam dukkhanirodhagiimini patipadii ariyasaccan ti me, 
bhikkhave, pe iiloko udapiidi. || 14 1| 

Tam kho pan' idam dukkhanirodhagiimini patipadii 
ariyasaccan bhavetabban ti me, bhikkhave, pe bhiivitan 
ti me, bhikkhave, pe iiloko udapiidi. ||15|| 

Yiiva klvafica me, bhikkhave, iraesu catusu ariyasaccesu 
evam ti-parivattara dviidasii-kiiram yathiibhutam niinadassa- 
nam na suvisuddham ahosi : n'eva tavaham bhikkhave 
sadevake loke samiirake sabrahmake, sassamanabriihmaniyii 
pajiiya sadevamanussiiya anuttaram sammiisambodhim abhi- 
sambuddho paccafifiilsim. ||16|| 

Yato ca kho me, bhikkhave, imesu catusu ariyasaccesu 
evam tiparivattara dviidasiikiiram yathiibhiitara fiiinadassanam 
suvisuddham ahosi, athaham, bhikkhave, sadevake loke sama- 
rake sabrahmake sassamanabrahmanlyii pajiiya sadevama- 



DHAMMACAKKA. HI 

nussiiya anuttaram sammusambodhim abhisambuddbo ti 
paccannasim. 111711 

Nanauca pana me dassanam adapadi : * Akuppa me 
ceto-vimutti, ayam antimu jati, n'atthi dani punabbhavo 
ti/ II 18 II 

Idam avoca Bhagava : attamana pancavaggiya bhikkbu 
Bhagavato bhasitam abhinandanti. || 19 1| 

Imasmim ca pana veyyakaranasmim bbanfiamane ayasraato 
Kondannassa virajam vltaraalam dhammacakkhum udapildi : 
* Yam kinci samudaya-dhammam sabbam tarn nirodha- 
dhamraanti.' ||20|| 

Pavattite ca pana Bhagavata dhammacakke Bbumma deva 
saddam anussavesum : * Evam Bhagavata Biiranasiyam Isi- 
patane Migadaye anuttaram dhammacakkam pavattitam, 
appativattiyam samanena va brahmanena va devena va 
Marena va Brahmuna va kenaci lokasmin ti.' I|21|| 

Bhummanam devanam saddam sutva Catumaharajika deva 
saddam anussavesum pe . ||22 1| 

Catumaharajikanam devanam saddam sutva, Tavatimsa 
deva saddam anussavesum pe . ||23|| 

Yam a deva pe . ||24|| 

TusitJi devji pe . ||25|j 

Nimmanarati deva pe . ||26|| 

Paranimmitavasavattino deva pe . ||27|| 

Brahmaparisajja deva pe . ||28|| 

Brahmapurohita deva pe . ||29|j 

Mahiibrahraa deva pe . || 30 1| 

Parittabha deva pe . || 31 |j 

Appamanabha deva pe . ||32li 

Abhassara deva pe . || 33 1| 

Parittasubha deva pe . ||34|| 

Appamanasubha deva pe . || 35 li 

Subhakinnii deva pe . I|36|| 

Vehapphala deva pe . || 37 II 

Asannasatta deva pe . || 38 1| 

Avihti deva pe . || 39 1| 

Attappa deva pe . ||40|( 

Sudaasa deva pe . ||41 1| 



112 MAIIASAMAYASUTTA. 

SudassT devil pe . ||42|| 
Akanitthii deva pe . ||43|| 

Evam Bhagavata Biiranasiyam Isipatane Migadiiye anutta- 
ram dhammacakkam pavattitam appativattiyam samanena vii 
brjihraanena vji devena va Marena vii Brahmunii vii kenaci 
vii lokasmin ti. || 44 1| 

Iti ha tena khanena tena layena tena rauhuttena yiiva 
Brahmalokii saddo abbhuggafichi, ayanca kho dasasahassi- 
lokadhiitu sahkampi, sarapakarapi, sampavedhi ; appainiino ca 
uliiro obhiiso loke piiturahosi atikkamma deviinam devanu- 
bbiivan ti. ||45|| 

Atha kho Bhagavii udiinam udiinesi : "Anniisi vata bho 
Kondafino, afifiiisi vata bho Kondanno ti." ||46|| 

Iti hi' dara iiyasmato Kondanfiassa Aiiniitakondarifio tv eva 
namam ahosi. ||47i| 

DHAMMACAKKAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAYATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagava Sakkesu 
viharati Kapilavatthusmim mahiivane mahatii bhikkhu- 
sarighena saddhira paficamattehi bhikkhusatehi sabbeh' eva 
arahantehi dasahi ca lokadhiitiihi devatii yebhuyyeua sanni- 
patita honti, Bhagavantam dassaniiya bhikkhusanghanca. || 1 1| 

Atha kho catunnam Suddh&viisa-kiiyikauam devanam etad 
ahosi : 

" Ayarn kho Bhagavii Sakkesu viharati Kapilavatthusmim 
mahiivane mahatii bhikkhu-sanghena saddhim paficamattehi 
bhikkhusatehi sabbeh' eva arahantehi, dasahi ca lokadhiitiihi 
devatii yebhuyyena sannipatitii honti, Bhagavantam dassa- 
naya bhikkhu-sanghafica. Yan niina mayam pi yena Bha- 
gavii ten' upasasankameyyiima, upasankamitvii Bhagavato 
santike paccekam giitham bhiiseyyiimati." || 2 1| 

Atha kho tii devata seyyathiipi niima balavii puriso 



MAHASAMAYASUTTA. 113 

samminjitam va baham pasareyya pasaritara va baham 
samminjeyya evam evam kho Suddhslvasesu devesu antara- 
hita Bhagavato purato paturahamsu. ||3|| 

Atha kho ta devatii Bhagavantam abhivadetvji ekam- 
antam attharasu : ekamantam thitii kho eka devatii Bhaga- 
vato santike imam gatham abhasi : 

" Mahasaraayo pavanasmim 
deva-kaya samagata ! 
AgatamhcT imam dhammasamayam 
dakkhitaye aparajitasanghan" ti. || 1 1| 

Atha kho apara devata Bhagavato santike imam gatham 
abhasi : 

" Tatra bhikkhavo samadahamsu 
cittam attano ujukam akamsu 
Sarathi va nettiini gahetva 

indriyani rakkhanti pandita " ti. ||2|| 

Atha kho apara devata Bhagavato santike imam gatham 
abhasi : 

" Chetva khilam chetva paligham 
indakhllam uhaccam aneja 
Te caranti suddha vimala 
cakkhumata sudanta susunag^" ti. ||3|| 

Atha kho apara devata Bhagavato santike imam giitham 
abhasi : 

" Ye keci buddhara saranam gatase 
na te gamissanti apayam 
Pahaya manusam deham 
devakayam paripuressanti " ti. || 4 1| 

Atha kho Bhagavii bhikkhu amantesi : 

" Yebhuyyena, bhikkhave, dasasu lokadhjitusu devata 
sannipatita Tathagatam dassanaya bhikkhu sahghanca. Ye 
pi te, bhikkhave, ahesum atitain addhanam arahanto samma- 
sambuddha, tesara pi Bhagavantiinam ete paramii yeva devata 
sannipatita ahesum, seyyatha pi mayham etarahi. Ye pi to, 
bhikkhave, bhavissanti aniigatara addhanam arahanto samma- 
sambuddha, tesam pi Bhagavantanam ete parama yeva 

8 



114 MAHASAMAYASUTTA. 

devata sannipatita bbavissanti, seyyatha pi mayham eta- 
rahi." II 5 II 

" AcikkhissJimi, bhikkhave devakJiyJinara niimani, kitta- 
ylssami, bhikkhave, devakayjinam niimani, desissiitni, bhi- 
kkhave, dcvakayjinam niimani. Tarn suniitha, sildhukam 
manasikarotha bhiisissjimiti. ||6|| 

" Evara bhante ! " ti. Te bhikkhn Bhagavato paccasso- 
sum. BhagavcT etad avoca: ||7|| 

** Silokam anukassiimi, yathii bhummii tad assita 
Ye sitii girfgabbharam pahitattti samahitii 
Puthu sihii va salllnii lomaharasabhisambhuno 
Odiita manasti saddhil vippassanara aniivila 
Bhiyo pauca-sate iiatvii vane Kiipilavatthave. Ill || 

Tato iimantayi satthii siivake siisane rate : 
Devakiiyii abhikkantii te vijaniitha bhikkhave ? 
Te ea atappam akarum sutvii Buddhassa siisanam 
Tesam piitur ahu nanam amanussilna dassanam. ||2|| 

App' eke satam addakkhum sahassam atha sattati 
Satam eke sahassiinain araanussiinam addarasu 
App eke 'nantam adakkhum disii sabba phutii ahu 
Tafica sabbam abhinfiiiya pavakkhitviina cakkhumii 
Tato amantayi satthii siivake siisane rate : 
Devakiiyii abhikkantii te vijiiniitha bhikkhave ? 
Ye vo 'ham kittayissiimi giriihi anupubbaso. || 3 1| 

Sattasahassii Yakkhii ea bhummii Kiipilavatthavii 
Iddhimanto jutimanto vannavanto yasassino 
Modamiinii abhikkiimum bhikkhunam samitim va- 
nam. ||4|| 

Cha sahassii Hemavatii Yakkhii niinatta-vannino 
Iddhimanto jutimanto vannavanto yasassino 
Modamiinii abhikkamum bhikkhunam samitim va- 
naro. 1)5 1| 

Satagirii ti-sahassil Yakkhii pe . ||6|| 

Ice ete solasa sahassa Yakkhii pe . ||7|| 

Vessamittil paflca satii Yakkhii po . || 8 II 



MAHASAMAYASUTTA. Hg 

Kumbhiro Riijagahiko Vepullassa nivesanam, 
Bhiyo nam satasahassam Yakkliunara payirupasati, 
Kumbhiro Rajagahiko so p' iiga samitim vanara. ||9|| 

Puriraaiica disam riijii Dhatarattho tam pasiisati 
Gandhabbiinarn adhipati mahariijii yasassi so. 
Puttii pi tassa bahavo indanama mahabbala 
Iddhimanto jutimanto vannavanto yasassino 
Modamana abhikkamum bhikkhunam samitim va- 
nam. moil 

Dakkhinanca disam raja Virulho tam pasiisati 
Kumbhandanam adhipati maharaja yasassi so 
Putta pi tassa pe . II 11 II 

Pacchimanca disam raja VirOpakkho tam pasiisati 
Niigiinauca adhipati mahiiriijii yasassi so. 
Putta pi tassa pe . II 12 1| 

Uttarafica disam riija Kuvero tam pasiisati 
Yakkhanain adhipati mahariija yasassi so 
Putta pi tassa pe . || 13 il 

Purimam disam Dhatarattho, dakkhinena Virulhako 
Pacchimena Virupakkho, Kuvero uttaram disam 
Cattaro te maharaja samantii caturo disa 
Daddallamana attharasu vane Kiipilavatthave. I|14|| 

Tesam mayiivino dasii agu vancanika sathii 
Maya Kutendu Vetendu Vitucca Yitucco saha 
Candano Kamasettho ca Kinnughandu Nighandu ca 
Paniido Opamanrio ca devasuto ca Miitali 
Citta-Seno ca Gandhabbo Nalaraja Janesabho 
Agum Pancasikho ceva Timbaru Suriyavaccasa 
Ete c' aiine ca riijiino Gandhabbii saha riijubhi 
ModamiiDa abhikkiimum bhikkhunam samitim va- 
nam. II15II 

Ath^gu Niibhasii Naga Yesala saha Tacchaka 
Kambalassatara iigu Payiigii saha niitibhi, 
Yilmunii Dharattha ca iigu Niigii yasassino 
Eriivano Mahauilgo so p' iigu samitim vanam. II 16 j| 



116 MAHASAMAYASUTTA. 

Ye nagaraje sahasa haranti 

dibba dvijii pakkhi visuddhacakkhu 

vehasaya te vana-majjlia-pattii 

Citta Supanna iti tesam naraam 

abhayam tadii Nagarajanam asi 

Supannato khemara akasi Buddho 

Sanhiihi viicJihi upavhayanta 

NagcT Supanna saranam againsu Buddham. ||171l 

Jita vajira-hatthena samuddara asiira sita. 
Bhataro Vasavas* ete iddhimanto yasassino. 
Kiilakanja mahahimsa asura Danaveghasa 
Vepacitti Sucitti ca Paharado Namuci saha 
Satafica Baliputtanam sabbe verocanamaka 
Sannayhitva balim senam Rahubhaddam upagaraum 
Samayo dani, bhadante, bhikkhunam samitim va- 
nam. ||18|( 

Apo ca deva Pathavl Tejo Yayo tad agamum 
Varuna Varuna deva Somo ca Yasasii saha 
Mettakaruna-kayika agu deva yasassino 
Das' ete dasadhakayii sabbe nanatta-vannino 
Idhiraanto pe samitim vanam II 19 II 

Venhu ca deva Sahall ca Asama ca duve Yama 
Candass* upanissii deva candam agu purakkhatvii 
Suriyass* upanissa deva suriyam agu purakkhatva 
Nakkhattani purakkhatva ilgu mandavalahaka 
Vasunam Yasavo settho Sakko p' iigu Purindado 
Das' ete dasadbakaya sabbe nanatta-vannino 
Iddhimanto pe samitim vanam. II 20 II 

Ath' iigu Sahabhu deva jalam aggi sikhii-r-iva 
Aritthaka ca Roja ca Umraa-puppha-nibhiisino ; 
Yaruna saha Dhammii ca Accutii ca Anejaka 
Suleyya Pucirii agu, iigu Yasavanesino 
Das' ete dasadha kaya pe samitim vanam. II 21 II 

Samanii Mahasamanii Miinusainanusuttama 
Khiddapadusika agu, iigu Manupadusikii 



MAHASAMAYASUTTA. 117 

Ath&gu Harayo devii ye ca Lohitavasino 

Piiragii Mahiiparagii iigu deva yasassino 

Das *ete dasadhii kiiyii pe saraitim vanam. || 22 II 

Sukhii Karumha Arunii agu Yeghanasa saha 
Odatagayhii Pamokkha agu deva Vicakkhana 
Sadiimatta Haragaja Missaka ca yasassino 
Thanayara agu Pajjunno yo disa abhivassati : 
Das' ete dasadha kaya pe samitim vanam. II 23 II 

Khemlyii Tusita Yiiraa Katthakii ca yasassino 
Larabitakii Liimasettha Joti nama ca Asava 
Nimmanaratino agu ath' agu Paranimmita 
Das' ete dasadha kaya pe samitim vanam. II 24 II 

Satth' ete deva-nikaya sabbe nanatta-vannino 
Nama-dvayena aganchum ye c' aniie sadisa saha : 

* Pamutthajjitim akhllara oghatinnam anasavam 
Dakkhem' oghataram Nagam candam va asitatigam.' II 25 II 

Subrahma Paramatto ca putta iddhimato saha 

Sanam kumaro Tisso ca so p' agu samitim vanam. II 26 II 

Sahassa Brahmalokanam Mahabrahma bhititthati 
Upapanno jutimanto bhismakayo yasassl so. II 27 II 

Das' ettha issara agu pacceka-vasavattino ; 
Tesaiica majjhato agu Harito parivarito. II 28 II 

Te ca sabbe abhikkante sa-Inda-deve sa-brahmake 
Marasena abhikkami : Passa kanhassa mandiyam. || 29 1| 

* Ettha ganhatha bandhatha ragena bandham atthu ve 
Samanta parivaretha ma vo muficittha koci nam.' || 30 1| 

Iti tattha mahaseno kanhasenam apesayi 
Panina talam ahacca saram katvana bheravam 
Yatha pavussako megho thanayanto savijjuko 
Tada so paccudavatti sankuddho asayam vasl. I|31|| 

Tauca sabbam abhinnaya pavakkhitvana cakkhumu 
Tato amantayi sattha siivake siisane rate : 
Marasena abhikkantu te vijanatha bhikkhavo P 



118 ALAVAKASUMTA. 

Te ca atappam akalrum sutvii Buddhassa sasanam. 
Yitariigeh' apakkamum na sam lomam pi iujayum. || 32 1| 

Sabbe vijita sarigamii-bhay&bhita yasassino 
Modanti saha bhutehi suvaku te jane sutati. i|33|| 

MAHASAMAYASUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDHASSA. 

Evam me sutara : Ekam saraayam Bhagava Alaviyam 
viharati Alavakassa Yakkhassa bhavane. Atha kho Alavako 
Yakkho yena Bhagava ten' upasahkami upasankamitva Bha- 
ga van tarn etad avoca : 

" Nikkhama samanH " ti. 

" * Sadhavuso ' " ti. Bhagava nikkhami. 

" Pavisa samani " ti. 

" * Sadh&vuso ' " ti. Bhagavii pavisi. 

Dutiyam pi kho Alavako yakkho Bhagavantam etad avoca : 
*' Nikkhama samana " ti. 

" * Sadhavuso ' " ti. Bhagava nikkliami. 

" Pavisa samana " ti. 

" 'Sadhavuso * " ti. Bhagava pavisi. 

Tatiyam pi kho Alavako yakkho Bhagavantam etad avoca: 
" Nikkhama samana " ti. 

" * Sadhavuso ' " ti. Bhagava nikkhami. 

" Pavisa samanaL " ti. 

" ' Sadhavuso * ** ti. Bhagava pavisi. 

Catutthara pi kho Alavako yakkho Bhagavantam etad 
avoca : " Nikkhama samana " ti. 

" 'Na kho pan&ham avuso nikkhamissiimi. Yan te karanl- 
yam tarn karohi * " ti. 

"Paiihara tam samana pucchissami. Sace me na bya- 
karissasi, cittam va te khipissami, hadayain va te phalessami, 
padesu va gahetva param Gangaya khipissami ti." 



AI.AVAKASUTTA. 119 

" 'Na khviiham tain, avuso, passilmi sadevake loke, sama- 
rake, sabrahmake, sassaraana bruhmaniya pajiiya sadevama- 
nussjiya, yo me cittam vii khipeyya, hadayara vii phaleyya, 
padesu vii gahetvji pjiram Gangiiya khipeyya. Api ca tvam 
avuso puccha yadu kankhasi ' " ti. 

"Xim sMha vittam purisassa settham? kimsu sucinno 
sukham avahati ? 
Kimsu have siidhutaram rasaaam ? katham jivim jivitam 
ahu setthan ? " ti. || 1 1| 

" * Saddh' idha vittam purisassa settham, dhammo sucinno 
sukham avahati, 
Saecam have sadhutaram rasanam, parina jIvim jivitam 
ahu setthan'" ti. ||2|| 

" Kathamsu tarati ogham ? kathain tarati annavam ? 
Kathamsu dukkham acceti ? kathamsu parisujjha- 
titi?"||3|| 

" * Saddhaya tarati ogham, appamadena annavam, 

Viriyena dukkham acceti, pafinaya parisujjhati. ' " ||4|| 

" Kathamsu labhate patinam ? kathamsu vindate dhanam? 
Kathamsu kittim pappoti? katham mittani gantheti ? 
Asma loka param lokam katham pecca na socati ? " || 5 1| 

" ' Saddahauo arahatam dhammam nibbanapattiya 
Sussusam labhate parliiam appamatto vicakkhano. 
Patirupakarl dhurava vutthata vindate dhanam 
Saccena kittim pappoti dadam mittani ganthati, 
Asmii loka param lokain evam pecca na socati. 
Yass' ete caturo dhammil saddhassa gharamesino 
Saecam dhammo dhiti cago sa ve pecca na socati. 
Ingha anne pucchassu puthu samanabriihmane 
Yadi sacca dama caga khanty&bhiyyo' dha vijjati. ' " ||6|I 

" Katham nu dani puccheyyam puthu samanabriihmane 
Sv4ham ajja pajanami so attho saraparayiko. 
Atthaya vata mo Buddho viisayalavim itgato 



120 PARABHAVASUTTA. 

Yo* ham ajja pajanami yattha dinnam roahapphalam 
So aham vicarissami giirailgamam purapurara 
Naraassaraano sambuddham dhammassa ca sudham- 
matan" ti. II7II 

ALAVAKASUTTAM. 



Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagavii Savatthiyara 
viharati Jetavane Aniithapindikassa ariime. Atha kho ailfia- 
tara devata abhikkantaya rattiya abhikkantavannii kevala- 
kappam Jetavanam obhiisetva, yena Bhagava ten* upa- 
sankami upasahkaraitva Bhagavantam abhiviidetvii ekaman- 
tani atthasi, ekamantara thita kho sa devata Bhagavantam 
gathaya ajjhabhasi. 

** Parabhavantam purisam mayam pucchiima Gotaraarn 
Bhagavantam putthum iigamma kim parabhavato 
mukham?" ||i|| 

** * Suvijiino bhavam hoti, suvijano parjlbhavo 

Dhammakamo bhavam hoti, dhammadessi parabha- 

vo.'"||2|| 

" Iti h' etam vijaniima : pathamo so pariibhavo 
Dutiyam Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 

kham?"||3|| 

" * Asant* assa piyji honti, sante na kurute piyam 

asantam dhammam roceti tam parabhavato mu- 
kham.'" II 4 II * 

"Iti h' etam vijjinaraa : dutiyo so pariibhavo 
tatiyam Bhagava bruhi: kim parabhavato mukham?" || 5 1| 

" * Niddasill sahJisTli anutthatii ca yo naro 

alaso kodhapannjito, tam parabhavato mukham.' " ||6|| 

" Iti h' etam vijaniiraa : tatiyo so pariibhavo 
catuttham Bhagavii bruhi : kim pariibhavato mu- 
kham?" 1I7|| 



rARABHAVASUTTA. 121 

" * Yo miltaram vii pitaram va jinnakaip gata-yobbanam 
pahusanto na bharati, tarn pariibhavato mukham.*" ||8|| 

" Iti h* etam vijaniiraa : catuttho so parabhavo 
paucamam Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 
kham?" |!9|| 

" ' Yo brahraanam va samanam va annam va pi vanibba- 
kam 
rausavadena vaBceti, tam parabhavato raukham.' " || 10 1| 

" Iti h' etam vijanama : paiicamo so parabhavo 
chattham Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 
"kham?" 1|11|| 
" * PahQvitto puriso sa-hiranno sa-bhojano 

eko bhufijati sadhuni, tam parabhavato mukhara.' " ||12|| 

** Iti h' etam vijanama : chattho so parabhavo 
sattamam Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 
kham?"||13|| 

" * Jatitthaddho, dhanatthaddho, gottatthaddho ca yo naro 
tam iiatim atimafineti, tam parabhavato mukham.' " I|14|| 

" Iti h' etam vijanama : sattamo so parabhavo 
Attham Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mukham ? " ||15I| 

" ' Itthidhutto, suradhutto, akkhadhutto ca yo naro 

laddham laddhara vinaseti, tam parabhavato mu- 
kham.' " ||16*l| 

" Iti h' etam vijanama : atthamo so parabhavo 
navamam Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 
kham?" || 17 1| 

* " Sehi darehi santuttho vesiya upadissati 

dissati paradaresu, tam parabhavato mukham.*" ||18|| 

" Iti h' etam vijanamo : navamo so parabhavo 
dasamam Bhagava bruhi : kim parabhavato mu- 
kham?" || 19 1| 

** * Atlta-yobbano poso aneti timbarutthanim 

tassa issa na supati, tam parabhavato mukham.'" ||20|| 



122 VASALASUTTA. 

" Iti h' etam vijaniima : dasamo so parabhavo 
ekiidasamam Bhagavu briihi : kim parjibhavato mu- 
kham?"||21|| 

" * Itthl-sondim vikiranim purisara vJi pi tadisam 

issariyasmim thiipeti tarn pariibhavato mukham.' " ||22|| 

" Iti h' etam vijaniima : ekiidasamo so parabhavo 
dvadasamarn Bhagava briihi: kirn pariibhavato mu- 
kham ?" |l 23 1| 

'* ' Appabhogo raahiitanho khattiye jiiyate kule 

so 'dha rajjam patthayati : tam pariibhavato mu- 
kham.' " || 24 1| 

*' * Ete pariibhave loke pandito samavekkhiya 

ariyo dassana-sarapatto salokam bhajate sivau'" ti. ||25|| 

PARABHAVASUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO AUAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evarn me sutam : Ekara samayara Bhagava Siivatthiyam 
viharati Jetavane Aniithapindikassa iiriime. Atha kko 
Bhagava pubbanha samayara nivasetvii pattaclvaram iidiij'a 
Siivatthiyam pindiiya piivisi. Tena kho pand saraayena 
Aggika-Bhiiradviijassa briihmanassa nivesane aggi pajjalito 
hoti iihuti paggahitii. || 1 1| 

Atha kho Bhagavii Siivatthiyam sapadiinam pindiiya cara- 
mano, yena Aggika-Bhiiradviijassa briihmanassa nivesanam, 
ten' uppasankami. ||2|| Addasii kho Aggika-Bhiiradviijo 
briihmano Bhagavantam dilrato agacchantara disviiua Bha- 
gavantam etad avoca : 

" Tatr' eva mundaka, tatr' eva samanaka, tatr' eva vasalaka 
titthiThi ti." || 3 1| 

Evam vutte Bhagava Aggika-Bhiiradviijam briihraanam 
etad avoca : 



VASALASUTTA. 123 

" * Junilsi pana tvam briihmana, vasalam va vasala-karane 
va dhamrae ti.' " ||4|| 

"Na khvaham, bho Gotaraa, janjimi vasalam va vasala- 
karane vii dhamme ti. Sadhu me bhavam Gotamo tatha 
dhammara desetu : yathaham janeyyam vasalam va vasala- 
karane va dhamme ti." 

" * Tena hi, brahraana, sunahi siidhukam manasikarohi 
bhasissami ti.' " || 5 (I 

"Evam bho" ti kho Aggika-Bharadvajo brahmauo Bha- 
gavato paccassosi. Bhagava etad avoca : || 6 11 

Xodhano upanahl ca papamakkhi ca yo naro 
vipannaditthi mayavl, tarn jafina vasalo iti. II 1 II 

Ekajam va dijam va pi yo 'dha panani himsati. 
yassa pane daya n'atthi, tarn jaiifia vasalo iti. ||2|| 

Yo hanti parirundhati giimani nigamani ca 
niggahako samannato, tarn janiia vasalo iti. ||3|| 

Game va yadi varanfie yam paresam mamayitam 
theyya adinnam adiyati, tarn jafifia vasalo iti. ||4|| 

Yo have inara adiiya vuccamano palayati 

na hi te inam atthiti, tarn janna vasalo iti. ||5|| 

Yo ve kincikkha-kamyata panthasmim vajatam janam 
hantva kincikkham adeti, tarn janiia vasalo iti. ||6|| 

Yo attahetu parahetu dhanahetu ca yo naro 
sakkhiputtho musabruti, tarn jaiina vasalo iti. ||7|| 

Yo natinam sakhanam va daresu patidissati 
sahasa sampiyena va, tarn janna vasalo iti. ||8|| 

Yo mataram vii pitaram va jinnakam gatayobbanam 
pahusanto na bharati, tarn janna vasalo iti. ||9 1| 

Yo mataram va pitaram va bhiitaram va bhaginim 
sassum hanti roseti va, tam janna vasalo iti. || 10 1| 

Yo attham pucchito santo anattham anusiisati. 
paticchantena manteti, tam janna vasalo iti. || 1111 



124 VASALASUTTA. 

Yo katvii piipalcam karamam * mji mam jafifiil ' ti icchati 
80 paticchaiina-kammaiito, tarn junnii vasalo iti. ||12|| 

Yo ve parakulam gantva bhutvana sucibhojanam 
agatam na patlpujeti, tam jafifia vasalo iti. ||13|| 

Yo briibraanam vii samanain va anuam va pi vanibbakara 
musavadena vanceti, tarn jafifia vasalo iti. ||14|| 

Yo brahmanam va samanam va bbattakale upattbite 
roseti vaca na ca deti, tam janfia vasalo iti. ||15|| 

Asatam yo 'dba pabriiti mobena paliguntbite 
kincikkbam nijigimsano, tam janna vasalo iti. ||16|| 

Yo c'attanarn samukkamse parafica avajanati 
nibino sena manena, tain janna vasalo iti. || 17 1| 

Rosako kadariyo ca papiccho maccbarl satbo 
abiriko anottapl, tain janfia vasalo iti. ||18(| 

Yo buddbam paribhiisati atba va tassa savakam 
paribbajam gabattham. va, tam janna vasalo iti. ||19|| 

Yo ve anaraba santo, arabam patijiiniiti 
coro sabrabraake loke esa kbo vasaladbamo ! 
ete kbo vasala vutta may a vo ye pakasitii. || 20 1| 

Na jacca vasalo hoti, na jacca boti brabmano 
kammana vasalo boti, kammana boti brabmano. ||21|| 

Tadamina pi jantitba yatba me 'dam nidassanam : 
" CandJilaputto Sopiiko Miitango iti vissuto. ||22[| 
So yasam paramam patto Miitango yam sudullabbam 
agancbum tass'upatthanamkbattiya brahmanjibabu. H23|| 
So devayjinam iiruyha virajam so mabiipatbam 
kamaragam virajetva brabmalokupago iibu. ||24|| 
Na nam jiiti nivjiresi brabraalokQpapattiya, 
ajjbiiyakiikule jiita brahmanii mantabandbuno : || 25 1| 
Te ca papcsu kammesu abhinbain upadissare 
dittb 'eva dbamrae garayhii sampariiye ca duggatim 
na te jati nivareti duggacca garabaya va: " ||26|| 



kasIbharadvajasutta. 126 

Na jacca vasalo hoti, na jacca hoti brahmano 
kammana vasalo hoti, kammana hoti brahmano. ||27|| 

Evam vutte Aggika-Bharadvajo brahmano Bhagavantain 
etad avoca : 

" * Abhikkantam, bho Gotama, abhikkantam bho Gotama ! 
nikkujjitain va ukkujjeyya, paticchannarn va vivareyya, 
inu}hassa va maggam acikkheyya, andhakare va telapajjotam 
dhiireyya cakkhumanto rupani dakkhinantiti : evam eva 
bhota Gotamanena aneka pariyayena dhamrao pakasito. 
Es^hain Bhagavantam Gotamam saranam gacchami dham- 
manca bhikkhusahghaiica ! Upasakam mam bhavam Gotamo 
dharetu, ajjatagge panupetam saranam gatan ti ' " ! || 7 li 

VASALASUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO AEAHATO SAMMA 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagava Magadhesu 
viharati Dakkhiniigirismiin Ekanalayam brahmanagiime. || 1 1| 
Tena kho pana samayena Kasibharadviijassa brahmanassa 
paiicamattani nangala-satiini payuttani honti vappakiile. ||2|| 
Atha kho Bhagava pubbanhasaraayam nivasetva patta-clva- 
ram adaya yena Kaslbhilradvajassa brahmanassa kammanto, 
ten' upasafikami. || 3 1| Tena kho pana samayena Kasibha- 
radviijassa brahmanassa parivesana vattati. ||4|| Atha kho 
Bhagava yena parivesanii ten' upasankami upasankamitva 
ekamantam atthasi. addasa kho Kasibharadvajo brahmano 
Bhagavantam etad avoca : 

"Aham kho, samana, kasami ca vaparai ca, kasitvii ca 
vapitva ca bhunjami. Tvam pi samana kasassu ca vapassu 
kasitvii ca vapitva ca bhunjassu ti." 

" * Aham pi kho, briihmana, kasiimi ca vapami ca kasitvii 
ca vapitva ca bhunjiimi ti.' " 

" Na kho pana mayam passiima bhoto Gotamassa yugara 
vii nangalam vii phiilam va piicanam vu balivaddam vii." 



126 kasTbharadvajasutta. 

Atha ca pana bhavam Gotamo evain aha : 

" * Aham pi kho brahmana kasaini ca vapiitni ca kasitva 

ca vapitva ca bhunjiiiniti.' " 

Atha kho Kaslbhiiradvajo briihraano Bhagavantam gathaya 

ajjhabhiisi: \\b\\ 

" Kassako patijanasi na ca passama te kasim 
kasino pucchito bruhi, yatha janemu te kasim." || 1 1| 

" * Saddha bijam, tapo vutthi, panfia me yuga-nangalara 
hirim Tsii, mano yottam, sati me phiilapaeanam. ||2|| 
Kiiyagutto vacTgutto iihare udare yato 
saccam karomi tiddtinam soraccam me pamocanam. ||3|| 
Viriyara me dhura-dhorayham yogakkhemadhivahanam 
gacchati ativattanam yattha gantvii na socati. ||4|| 
Evam esa kasi katthii sa hoti amatapphala 
etam kasim kasitvana sabbadukkba pamuccatiti.' " ||5|| 

Atha kho Kaslbharadviijo briihmano mahatiya kamsiipatiya 
payasam vaddhetva Bhagavato upanamesi : 

" Bhunjatu bhavam Gatamo payasam ! Kassako bhavam, 
yamhi bhavam Gotamo amatapphalam kiisim kiisatiti." i| 6 1| 

" * Gathabhigltam me abhojaneyyam 
sampassatam brahmana n' esa dhammo 
gathabhigltam panudanti buddhii 
dhamme sati, brahmana, vutti-r-esa.' " ||6|| 

" * Aiinena ca kevalinam mahesim 
khin&savam kukkuccavupasantara 
annena piiuena upatthahassu 
kbettam hi tain punnapekhassa hotiti/ " ||7|| 

" Atha kassa c&hara bho Gotama imam payitsam dammiti." 
*' ' Na khvaham tam, brahmana, passiirai sadevake loke 
samarake sabrahmake sassamanabriihraaniya pajiiya sadeva- 
manussaya, yassa so payaso bhutto sammii pariniimam 
gaccheyya, annatra Tathagatassa vii Tathiigatasiivakassa va : 
tena hi tvam, brahmana, tam payasam appaharite va chaddeti 
appjinake va udake opilapehiti. || 7 |j 

Atha kho Kaslbhiiradvajo brahmano tam payasam appa- 



SACCAVIBHANOA. 127 

nake udake opililpesi. Atha kho so piiyaso udake pakkhitto 
ciccitayati ciccitiiyati sandhiipayati sampadhiipayati : seyya- 
thapi niima phiilo divasti santatto udake pakkhitto ciccitiiyati 
ciccitayati sandliupiiyati sampadhiipayati : evam eva so 
pjiyiiso udake pakkhitto ciccitayati ciccitiiyati sandhupiiyati 
sampadhiipayati. ||8|| 

Atha kho Kaslbhiiradviijo briihmano samviggo lomahattha- 
jiito yena Bhagavii ten' upasankami upasankamitva Bhaga- 
vato piidesu sirasii nipatitvii Bhagavantam etad avoca : 

" Abhikkantam, bho Gotama, abhikkantam, bho Gotama ! 
seyyathapi bho Gotama nikkujjitam vii ukkujjeyya, pati- 
channam va vivareyya, miilhassa va maggam acikkheyya, 
andhakare va telapajjotam dhiireyya cakkhumanto rupani 
dakkhintiti : Evam eva, bho Gotama, aneka pariyayena 
dbammo pakiisito. Esaham bhagavantam Gotamam sara- 
nam gacchiimi dhammaiica bhikkhu-sanghailca. Labheyyarn 
ahara bhoto Gotamassa santike pabbajjam labheyyarn upa- 
sampadan ti." || 9 1| 

Alattha kho Kaslbharadviijo brahmano Bhagavato santike 
pabbajjam, alattha upasarapadara. Acirupasampanno kho 
pan' ayasmii Bhiiradviijo eko viipakattho appamatto atiipl 
pahitatto viharanto na cirass' eva yass' atthiij'a kulaputta 
sammad eva agarasma anagiiriyam pabbajanti, tad anutta- 
ram brahmacariya-pariyosiinam ditth' eva dhamme sayam. 
abhiiiiia sacchikatva upasarapajja vihiisi. 

" Khlnii jati, vusitara brahmacariyam, katam karanlyam, 
naparam itthattiij'ati," abhiunii anfiataro ca kho pan' ayasmii 
Bharadviijo arahatara ahositi. ||10|| 

KASIBHARADVAJASUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutain : Ekara samayam Bhagavii Biininasiyam 
viharati Isipatane Migadiiye. Tatra kho Bhagavii bhikkhu 
amantesi: 'bhikkhavo' ti, 'bhadante* ti. Te bhikkhu Bha- 
gavato paccassosum. Bhagavii etad avoca : II 1 1| 



128 SACCAVIBHANGA. 

" Tathagatena, bhikkhave, arahatii sammitsainbuddhena 
Buninasiyam Isipatane Migadilye anuttaram dhammacakkam 
pavattitam appativattiyam saruanena vu bruhmanena vii 
devena va Miirena va Brahrauna va kenaci va lokasmin ti. 
Yad idam catunnain ariyasaccanam acikkhata desatil pafifia- 
patji patthapata vivaranii vibhajanji uttaDakammam. 

Katamesam catunnam ? 

Dukkhassa ariyasaccassa acikkhata pe . 

Dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa acikkhata pe . 

Dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa acikkhata pe 

Dukkhanirodhagaiuinlpatipada ariyasaccassa acikkhata 
pe .11211 

Tathagatena, bhikkhave, arahata sammasambuddhena 
Baranasiyam Isipatane Migadaye anuttaram dhamraacakkain 
pavattitam appativattiyam samanena va brahmanena va 
devena va Marena va Brahrauna vii kenaci va lokasmim : 
yad idam imesam catunnam ariyasaccanam acikkhata 
pe. 11311 

" Sevetha, bhikkhave, Sariputta-Moggalhme, bhejatha, bhi- 
kkhave, Sariputta-Moggallane pandita bhikkhu anuggahaka 
brahmacarinam : seyyathapi bhikkhave, janetti evam Sari- 
putto: seyyathapi jatassa apiidetiievam Moggallano. Sari- 
putto, bhikkhave, sotapatti-phale vineti ; Moggallano iitta- 
matthe vineti ; Sariputto, bhikkhave, pahoti cattiiri ariya- 
saccjini vittharena acikkhitum desetum paiinapetum vivarituni 
vibhajitura uttaniikiitun ti. 

Idam avoca Bhagavii : idam vatva Sugato utthayasana 
viharara pavisi. II 4 1| 

Tatra kho iiyasma Sariputto acirapakkantassa Bhagavato 
bhikkhu amantesi : 

'Avuso bhikkhavo' ti 'avuso* ti kho. te bhikkhii ayasmato 
Sariputtassa paccassosum : Ayasraa Sariputto etad avoca : 

"Tathagatena, avuso, arahata sammasambuddhena Bara- 
nasiyam Isipatane Migadaye anuttaram dhammacakkam 
pavattitam appativattiyam samanena va brahmanena va 
devena va Marena va BrahmunJi vii kenaci vii lokasmim: 
yad idam catunnam ariyasacciinaTn iicikkhatii pe . II 5 1| 



SACCAVIBHANOA. 129 

Xatamesam catunnam ? 
Dukkhassa ariyasaccassa ilcikkhata pe 
Dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa ticikkhata pe . 
Dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa acikkhatu pe . 
Bukkhanirodhagaminlpatipadassa ariyasaccassa acikkhatu 
pe .11611 

Kataraa ca, avuso, dukkhara ariyasaccam ? 

" Jati pi dukkhii, jarii pi dukkha, vyiidhi pi dukkha, mara- 
nam pi dukkhara, soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-upayasa 
dukkha : yam p' iccham na labhati tarn pi dukkham, san- 
khittena pane' upadiinakkhandha dukkha. 

Katamii ca avuso jiiti ? 

Ya tesam tesam sattiinam tamhi tamhi sattanikaye jati 
sanjati okkanti abhinibbatti khandhiinain piitubhavo ayatina- 
nain patiliibho. Ayam vuccat' avuso jati. ||1|| 

Katama ca avuso jara ? 

Ya tesam tesam sattanam tamhi tamhi sattanikaye jara, 
jTranata, khandiccam, paliccam valittacata ayuno samhani 
indriyanam paripako. Ayam vuccat' avuso jara. ||2|| 

Katama ca avuso maranam ? 

Ya tesam tesam sattiinam tamha tamha sattanikaye cuti 
cavanata bhedo antaradhanam maccu maranam kalakiriya 
khandhiinara bhedo kalebarassa nikkhepo. Idam vuccat' 
avuso maranam. ||3|| 

Katama ca avuso soko ? 

Yo kho avuso afiiiatarannatarena byasanena samannaga- 
tassa annatarannatarena dukkhadhammena phutthassa soko 
socanti socanattam antosoko antoparisoko. Ayam vuccat' 
avuso soko. ||4|| 

Katama ca iivuso paridevo ? 

Yo kho avuso annatarannatarena byasanena samannaga- 
tassa annatarannatarena dukkhadhammena phutthassa adevo 
paridevo iidevo paridevo iidevanJi paridevana adevitattam 
paridevitattara. Ayam vuccat' iivuso paridevo. II 5 1| 

Katama ca dukkham? 

Yam kho iivuso kayikam dukkham kiiyikam kiiya- 
samphassajam dukkham asiitam vedayitam. Idam vuccat' 
avuso dukkham. |j 6 1| 



130 SACCAVIBHANGA. 

Katamu ca ^l^also domanossam P 

Yam kho avuso cetasikam dukkham cetasikam asiitam ma- 
nosamphassajam dukkham asutam vedayitam. Idam vuccat* 
uvuso domanassam. II 7 II 

atamii ca iivuso upayiiso ? 

Yo kho iivuso anfjatarannatarena byasanena saraannugatena 
aniiatarannatarena dukkhadhammena phutthassa uyiiso upii- 
yaso ayiisitattam upayasitattam. Ayam vuccat' avuso upa- 
yaso. II8II ' 

Katama ca avuso yam p' iccham na labhati tarn pi 
dukkham ? 

Jatidhammanam cTvuso sattanam evam iccha uppajjati : 
"aho vata mayam na jatidhammii assama, na ca vata no jati 
agaccheyy&ti : na kho pan' etara icchjiya pattabbam." Idam 
pi yam p' iccham na labhati, tam pi dukkham. 

Jaradhammtinara iivuso sattiinam evam icchii uppajjati : 
*'aho vata mayam na jariidhamma assiima, na ca vata no jarii 
iigaccheyyati : na kho pan' etam icchiiya pattabbam." Idam 
pi yam p' iccham na labhati tam pi dukkham. 

Byiidhidhammiinara avuso sattiinam evam icchii uppajjati : 
" aho ca vata mayam na byiidhidhammii assiima, na ca vata no 
byiidhi agaccheyyati : na kho pan' etam icchiiya pattabbam." 
Idam pi yam p' iccham na labhati tam pi dukkham. 

Maranadhammiinain iivuso sattiinam evam icchii uppajjati : 
" aho ca vata mayam na maranadhamma assiima, na ca vata no 
maranarn iigaccheyyati : na kho pan' etam icchiiya pattabbam." 
Idam pi yam p' iccham na labhati tam pi dukkham. 

Soka-parideva-dukkhadomanass-upiiyasii dhammiinam avuso 
sattiinam evam icchii uppajjati : " aho vata raayarn na soka- 
paridevadukkhadomanassupiiyiisa dhammii assiima, na ca vata 
no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupiiyiisii iigaccheyum: na kho 
pan* etam icchiiya pattabbam." Idam pi yam p' iccham na 
labhati tam pi dukkham. ||9|| 

Katamii c&vuso sankhittena pancupiidiinakkhandhii dukkhii? 

Seyyathldara : Riipupiidiinakkhandho, vedanupiidiinakkha- 
ndho, sanfiupiidiinakkhandho, saiikhiirupiidiinakkhandho, vi- 
ilnanupiidiinakkhandhii. Ime vuccat' iivuso sankhittena 
pailcupadiiQakkhandhii dukkhii. || 10 1| 



SACCAVIBHANGA. 131 

Idam vuccat* iivuso dukkhara ariyasaccam. ||7I| 

Xatama ca avuso dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam ? 

Yayara tanba ponobbhavikanandiraga-sahagata tatra tatri- 
bbinaadinl : seyyathldam : 

Kiimatanba bbavatanba vibbavatanba. Idara vuccat' avuso 
dukkbasamudayam ariyasaccam. || 8 1| 

Katama ca avuso dukkbanirodbam ariyasaccam ? 

Yo tassa yeva tanbaya asesaviraganirodbo ciigo patinissago 
mutti analayo. Idam vuccat' avuso dukkbanirodbam ariya- 
saccam. [|9|| 

Katama ca avuso dukkbanirodbagaraini patipada ariya- 
saccam ? 

Ayam eva ariyo attbangiko maggo : seyyatbidam : samma- 
dittbi, sammasankappo, sammavaca, sammakammanto, samma- 
ajlvo, samma-vayamo, sammasati, sammasamadbi. 

Katama ca avuso sammadittbi ? 

Yam kbo avuso dukkbe-fianam, dukkbasamudaye-nanam, 
dukkbanirodbe-nanam, dukkbanirodba-gaminlpatipadaya-na- 
nam. ^Ayam vuccat' avuso sammadittbi. || 1 1| 

Katama ca avuso sammasankappo ? 

Nekkbammasankappo abyilpadasahkappo avibimsasan- 
kappo. Ayam vuccat' avuso sammasankappo. II 2 II 

Katama ca avuso sammavaca ? 

Musavjidii veramani pisunavacaya veramani pbarusavacjiya 
veramani sampbappalapaya veramani. Ayam vuccat' avuso 
sammavaca. ||3|| 

Katama ca avuso sammakammanto ? 

Panatipjita veramani adinnadanii veramani kiimesu miccbil- 
cara veramani. Ayam vuccat' avuso sammakammanto. ||4|| 

Katama ca avuso samma-ajlvo. 

Idb' avuso ariyasavako miccba ajlvam pabaya, samma- 
ajlvena jivikam kappeti. Ayam vuccat' avuso samma 
ajivo. II 5 II 

Katama ca avuso samraavayiimo ? 

Idb' avuso bbikkbu anuppanniinam papakiinam akusalanam 



182 SACCAVIBHANGA. 

dhammiinam anuppildiiya chandam janeti vayamati viriyam 
urabhati cittam pagganhuti padahati. 

Uppanniinam papakilnam akusaliinam dhammunam pahii- 
nuya chandam janeti pe padahati. 

Anuppannanara kusahTnam dhammunam uppiidiiya chandam 
janeti pe padahati. 

Uppannanam kusaliinam dhammanam thitiya asammohiiya 
bhiyo bhiivuya vepulliiya bhavaniiya paripfiriya chandam 
janeti vayamati viriyam arabhati cittam padahati. Ayam 
vuccat* iivuso sammavayiimo. ||6|| 

Katama ca avuso sammasati ? 

Idh' avuso bhikkhu kiiye kilyanupassi viharati atiipl sampa- 
jano satima vineyya loke abhijjhadomanassam. 

Yedana vedananupassi viharati atapl pe abhijjha- 
domanassam. 

Citte citt&nupassi viharati atapl pe abhijjhado- 
manassam. 

Dhamme dhammanupassi viharati atapl sampajano satima 
vineyya loke abhijjhadomanassam. 

Ayam vuccat' iivuso sammasati. II 7 1| 

Katama ca avuso sammiisamadhi ? 

Idh' iivuso bhikkhu vivicc' eva kiimehi vivicca akusalehi, 
dhammehi savitakkam saviciiram vivekajam pitisukham 
pathamajjhjinam upasampajja viharati. 

Vitakkaviciiranam vupasamii ajjhattam sampasiidanam 
cetaso ekodibhiivam avitakkam avicJiram samadhijam piti- 
sukham dutiyajjhanam upasampajja viharati. 

Pitiya ca viriigii upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajano 
sukhanca kiiyena patisamvedeti yan tam ariyii acikkhanti 
upekkhako satima sukhavihiirl ti tatiyajjhiinara upasampajja 
viharati. 

Sukhassa ca pahiinil dukkhassa ca pahiinji pubbc ca soma- 
nassa-domanassanara atthagamjl addukkham asukham upe- 
kkhiisati-parisuddhim catutthajjhanam upasampajja viharati. 
^Ayam vuccat' iivuso sammiisamiidhi. II 8 |j 

Idam vuccat' avuso dukkhanirodhagiiminlpatipada ariya- 
saccam. II 10 11 



ARUNAVATISUTTA. 133 

Tathiigatena iivuso arahatii sammusarabuddhena Biirunasi- 
yara Isipatane Migadaye anuttaram dhammaoakkam pavatti- 
tam appativattiyara samanena vii brahmanena va devena va 
Marena vii Brahmunii vu kenaci vii lokasmim acikkhata 
desata pafinapata patthapata vivarana vibhajana uttana- 
kamman ti. II 11 II 

Idam avoca ayasma Sariputto attamanii te bhikkhu ayas- 
mato Sariputtassa bhasitam abhinandun ti. 

SACCAVIBHANGA. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAYATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekara samayam Bhagavii Savattbiyam 
viharati Jetavane Anatbapindikassa arame. Tatra kbo 
Bhagava bbikkbu amantesi * bhikkbavo ' ti * bbadante * ti. 
Te bbikkbu Bhagavato paccassosum : Bbagava etad avoca: II 1 1| 

" Bbfltapubbam, bbikkbave, raja abosi Arunavii. Rafino 
kbo pana bbikkbave Arunavato Arunavati nama rajadbani 
abosi. II 2 II 

Ariinavatiyam kbo pana bbikkbave rujadbanlyam Sikbl 
Bbagava Arabam Sammasambuddbo upanissaya vibasi. II 3 II 

Sikhissa kbo pana bbikkbave Bbagavato Arabato Samma- 
sambuddbassa Abhibbu Sambbavam nama savakayugam 
abosi aggam bbaddayugam. ||4|| 

Atba kbo, bbikkbave, Sikbl Bbagava Arabam Samma- 
sambuddbo Abbibbum bbikkbum amantesi : || 5 1| 

" Ayama brabmana yena anfiataro brabmaloko : ten' upa- 
safikamissama yiiva bbattassa kiilo bbavissati." || 6 1| 

Evam bbante ti kbo te bbikkbave Abbibbu bhikkhu 
Sikhissa Bhagavato Arabato Sammasambuddhassa pacca- 
ssosi. 11711 

Atba kbo, bbikkbave, Sikbl Bhagavii Arabam Samma- 
sambuddbo Abhibbu ca bhikkhu scyyathapi nama : balavu 



134 ARUNAVATISUTTA. 

puriso samraifljitam vu baham pasiireyya pasaritam va 
baham sammifijeyya. || 8 II 

Evam evara Arunavatiya rajadhaniya antarahita tasmim 
brahmaloke paturahesum. 

Atha kho, bhikkhave, Sikhl Bhagava Araham Samma- 
sambuddho Abhibhum bhikkhum iimantesi : " Patibhatu 
brabmana tam brabmuno ca brahma-parisa ca brabmapari- 
sajjanam ca dhamml kathji ti." ||9|| 

Evam bhante ti kbo bhikkhave Abhibhu bhikkhu Sikhissa 
Bhagavato Arahato Sammiisambuddhassa patissutvii brahma- 
nauca brahmaparisanca brahmaparisajje ca dhammiya kathaya 
sandassesi samiidapesi samuttejesi sampahamsesi. IllOli 

Tatra sudara bhikkhave brahma ca brahmaparisa ca 
brahmaparisajjii ca ujjhayanti khiyanti vipacenti. 

Acchariyam vata bho abbhutara vata bho kathauhi nama 
satthari sammukhlbhute savako dhammam desessatiti. ||11|| 

Atha kho bhikkhave Sikhl BhagavJi Araham Samma- 
sambuddho Abhibhum bhikkhum amantesi : 

" Ujjhayanti kho te brahmana brahma ca brahmaparisa ca 
brahmaparisajjii ca : acchariyam vata bho abbhutam vata 
bho kathauhi nama satthari sammukhlbhute savako 
dhammam desessatiti." 

Tena hi tvam brahmana bhiyyo so mattaya brahmaiica 
brahmaparisanca brahmaparisajje ca saravejehiti. || 12 II 

Evam bhante ti kho bhikkhave Abhibhu bhikkhu 
Sikhissa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa patissutva 
dissamiinena pi kayena dhammam desesi adissamiinena pi 
kayena dhammam desesi : dissamiinena hetthimena upaddha- 
kayena, adissamiinena uparimena upaddhakiiyena dhammam 
desesi : dissamiinena pi uparimena upaddhakiiyena, adissa- 
miinena hetthimena upaddhakiiyena pi dhammam desesi. ||13|| 

Tatra sudam bhikkhave brahmii ca brahmaparisii ca brahma- 
piirisajjii ca acchariyabbhuta-citta-jiitii ahesum. Acchariyam 
vata bho abbhutam vata bho samanassa mahiddhikata mah&- 
nubhiivatati. ||14|| 

Atha kho Abhibhil bhikkhQ Sikhira Bhagavantara Ara- 
hantam Sammasambuddham etad avoca : 



ARUNAVATISUTTA. 135 

" Abhijanami khv&ham bhante bhikkhusaughassa maj jhe 
evariipam viicam bhasita, pahomi khvahara avuso brahraaloke 
thito sahassllokadhatura sarena vinnapetun ti. Etassa brahraa- 
na kalo yam tvam brahmana brahmaloke thito sahassi-loka- 
dhatum sarenavinuapeyyasiti. ||15|| 

Evam bhante ti kho bhikkhave Abhibhii bhikkhu Sikhissa 
Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa patissutva brahma- 
loke thito ima giithayo abhasi : 

Arabhatha, nikkamatha, yufijatha Buddhasiisane 
Dhunatha maccuno senaiu nalikeram va kufijaro. || 1 1| 

Yo imasmim dhammavinaye appamatto vihassati 
Pahaya jatisamsaram dukkhassantam karissatlti. ||2|| 

Atha kho bhikkhave Sikhl ca Bhagava Araham Samma- 
sambuddho Abhibhii ca bhikkhu brahmanca brahmaparisaiica 
brahmaparisajje ca samvejetva seyyathapi nama : balava pu- 
riso samminjitaip. va baham pasareyya pasaritam va baham 
sammifijeyya : evam eva tasmim brahmaloke antarahita Arii- 
navatiya rajadhaniya paturahesum. ||16|| 

Atha kho bhikkhave Sikhi Bhagava Araham Sammasam- 
buddho bhikkhu amantesi : 

"Assuttha no tumhe bhikkhave Abhibhussa bhikkhuno 
brahmaloke thitassa gathayo bhasamanassa ti." ||17|| 

"'Assumha kho mayam bhante Abhibhussa bhikkhuno 
brahmaloke thitassa gathayo bhasamanassa ti.'" I|18|| 

" Yatha katham pana tumhe bhikkhave assuttha Abhi- 
bhussa bhikkhuno brahmaloke thitassa gathayo bhasamanass4 
ti." II 19 II 

"*Evam kho mayam bhante assumha Abhibhussa bhi- 
kkhuno brahmaloke thitassa gathayo bhasamanassa : 

" Arabhattha, nikkamatha, yunjatha Buddhasasane 
Dhunatha maccuno senam nalikeram va kufijaro. II 1 1| 

" Yo imasmim dhammavinaye appamatto vihassati 
Pahaya jatisamsaram dukkhassantam korissati tL l|2|| 



136 DEVADAHASUTTA. 

" * Evam kho mayam bhante assumha Abhibhussa bhi- 
kkhuno bmhmaloko thitassa gathilyo bhasamanassil ti.'" ||20|| 

"Siidhu, sildhu, bbikkhave, sadbu kho turahe bhikkhave 
assuttha Abbibhussa bbikkbuno brahmaloke thitassa giithayo 
bhasamanassa ti. I|21|| 

Idam avoca Bhagava : attamana te bhikkhu Bhagavato 
bbasitam abhinandun ti. ||22|| 

ARUNAVATISUTTAM. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Evam me sutam : Ekam samayam Bhagava Sakkesu viha- 
rati Devadahan niima Sakyanam nigamo. Tatra kho Bhagava 
bhikkhu amantesi : 

"Naham bhikkhave sabbe sanneva bhikkhiinam chasa 
phass&yatanesu appamadena karanlyan ti vadiimi." 

"Na ca panaham bhikkhave sabbe sanneva bhikkhunam 
chasu phassayatanesu nappamjidena karanlyan ti vadiimi." 

"Ye te, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahanto khlniisava vusitavanto 
katakaraniya ohitabharii anupattasadatthti parikkhlna bhava- 
samyojana sammad-aililavimutta : soham bhikkhiinam chasu 
phassilyatanesu nappamadena karanlyan ti vadiimi. || 1 1| 

"Tarn kissa hetu? Katan tesu appamiidena abhabbate 
pamajjitum. Ye ca kho te, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sekha 
appattamiinasii anuttarara yogakkheraam patthayamiinii vi- 
haranti ; nes&hara bhikkhave bhikkhiinam chasu phassiiya- 
tanesu appamiidena karanlyan ti vadiimi." ||2|| 

" Tam kIssa hetu ? Santi bhikkhave cakkhuvinneyyil, 
riipii manoramii pi amanoramii pi. Tyassa phussa cittani na 
pariyiidiiya titthati cetaso apariyiidiinii araddham hoti viri- 
yam asalllnam upatthitii sati apamuttha passaddho kiiyo asa- 
raddho samilhitam cittam ekaggam : imain khv^ham, bhi- 



DEVADAHASUTTA. 137 

kkhave, appamadassa phalam samphassa-miino tesam bhi- 
kkhilnam chasu phassayatanesu appamadena karanlyan ti 
vadami. || 3 || 

Santi bhikkhave ghanavinfieyya gandha manorama pi 
amanorama pi. || 4 || 

Santi bhikkhave jivhavinneyya rasa manorama pi amano- 
rama pi. il 5 II 

Santi bhikkhave kayavinneyyii photthabba manorama pi 
amanorama pi. || 6 || 

Santi bhikhhave manovififieyya dhamma manorama ama- 
norama pi. 

Tyassa phussa cittam na pariyadaya titthati cetaso 
apariyadtina araddham hoti : viriyam asalllnam upatthita sati 
apamuttha passaddho kayo asaraddho samahitam cittam 
ekaggam : imam khvaham bhikkhave appamadaphalam 
samphassamano tesam bhikkhunam chasu phassayatanesu 
appamadena karanlyan ti vadami. || 7 1| 

Liibha vo bhikkhave suladdhaip vo bhikkhave khano vo 
patiladdho brahmacariya vasayati. 

Dittha mayii bhikkhave cha phassayataniinika nama niraya. 

Tatha : yam kinci cakkhunii rupam passati anittharu- 
pan iieva passati neva itthariipam akantarupau iieva passati 
no kantarupam amanapariipan neva passati no manaparilpam. 

Yam kiuci sotena saddam sunati pe . 

Yam kiuci gbiinena gandham ghayati pe . 

Yam kinci jivhaya rasam sayati pe . 

Yam kiiici kayena photthabbam phusati pe . 

Yam kiuci manasil dhammara vijanati anittharQpam yeva 
vijanati, no ittharupam akantarupam yeva vijanati, no kanta- 
rupam amanapariipam yeva vijanati no maniiparupara. ||8|| 

Labha vo, bhikkhave, suladdham vo, bhikkhave, khapo vo, 
bhikkhave, patiladdho brahmacariyavasaya. 

Dittha maya, bhikkhave, cha-phassiiyatanika nilma saggit. 

Tuttha : yam kinci cakkhuna rupam passati ittharupam 



138 DEVADAHA8UTTA. 

yeva passati no anittharnpam : kantariipam yeva passati no 
akantam rilpam : manaparilpam yeva passati no amanapa- 
rupam. 
pe . 

Yam kifici manasu dhammam vijiinati ittharupam yeva 
vijanati, no anittharupam : kantarupam yeva vijanati, no 
akantarupam : manaparupam yeva vijanati, no amanapa- 
rOpam. ||9|| 

Liibha vo bhikkhave, suladdham vo bhikkhave, khano vo 
patiladdho brahraacariya vasay&ti. 

Ruparamii, bhikkhave, devamanussa riiparatii, rupasamu- 
dita rupaviparinama-viraganirodha dukkhii bhikkhave 
devamanussa viharanti. 

Saddarama, bhikkhave, pe . 

Gandharama, bhikkhave, pe . 

Rasarama, bhikkhave, pe . 

Photthabbiirama, bhikkhave, pe . 

Dhamraaramii, bhikkhave, devamanussa dhammarata 
dhammasamudita dhammaviparinama viraganirodha du- 
kkha, bhikkhave, devamanussa viharanti. I|10|| 

Tathagato ca kho, bhikkhave, Arahara Sammasambuddho 
rupanam samudayailca atthagamanca assadafica adinavaoca 
nissarananca yathabhutam viditva na ruparamo, na ruparato 
na rupasamudito na rilpaviparijgiama yiriiganirodha sukho 
bhikkhave Tathagato viharati. 

Saddanam pe . 

Gandhanam pe . 

Kasanam pe . 

Photthabbanam pe . 

Dhammanam samudayailca atthagamanca assadauca adlna- 
vauca nissaranailca yathabhutam viditva : na dhammaramo, 
na dhammarato, na dhammasamudito, na dhammaviparinama 
viraganirodho sukho bhikkhave Tathagato viharatiti. ||11|| 

Idam avoca Bhagavii. Idam vatva ca Sugato : athaparam 
etad avoca sattha : 



DEVADAHASUTTA. 139 

Bupu saddu gandha rasa phassa dhamma ca kevala 
Ittha kanta manapa ca yava tattha ti vuccanti. il 1 1| 

Sadevakassa lokassa ete vo sukhasammata 
Yattha ce te nirujjhanti tarn tesam dukkham samma- 
tam. II2II 

Sukham tain ditthamariyehi sakkiiyassa nirodhanam 
Paccanlkam idam hoti sabbalokena passatam. || 3 1| 

Yam pare sukhato ahu tad ariya ahu dukkhato 
Yam pare dukkhato ahu tad ariya sukhato vidu. ||4I| 

Passadhammam duvijanam sammulhettha aviddasu 
Nivutanam tamo hoti andhakaro apassatam. || 5 1| 

Satanca vivatam hoti aloko passatam iva 

Santike na vijananti maggadhammassa kovida. ||6|| 

Bhavaraga-paretebhi bhavayoganusaribhi 
Maradheyyanupannebhi nayamdhammosusambuddho. ||7|| 

Ko nu aunatram ariyebhi padi sambuddham arahati 
Yam padam sammadaunaya parinibbanti auasava ti. i| 8 1| 

DEVADAHASUTTAM. 

PARITTAM NITTHITAM. 



A COLLECTION OF KAMMAVACAS. 



NAMO TASSA BHAGAYATO ARAHATO SAMMA- 
SAMBUDDHASSA. 

Chap. I. 

THE ORDINATION OF A PRIEST. 

Pathamam upajjham gahapetabbo, upajjham gahapetva 
pattacivaram acikkhitabbam : 

* Ayan te patto ? ' " Ama bhante." 

' Ayam sanghati ? ' " Ama bhante." 

* Ayam uttarasaiigo ? ' " Ama bhante." 

' Ayam antaravasako ? ' " Ama bhante." 

* Gaccha amumhi, okase titthahi ! ' 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ndgo dyasmato Tissassa upa- 
sampadapekho. Yadi sanghassa pattakallam, aham Ndgam 
auusaseyyam. 

Sunasi Ndga ! ayan te paccakalo bhutakalo. Yam jatam, 
tarn sanghamajjhe pucchante : santam atthiti vattabbam, 
asantam natthiti vattabbam. 

Ma kho vitthiisi ! ma kho manku ahosi ! 

Evam tam pucchissan ti. 

Santi te evarupa abadhii ? 

* Kuttham ? ' " Natthi bhante." 

* Gando r " Natthi bhante." 

* Kilaso ? ' " Natthi bhante." 
*So8o?' " Natthi bhante." 

* Apamiiro ? ' " Natthi bhante." 



142 UPASAMPADA KAMMAVACA. 

* Manusso' si P' " Ama bbante." 
' Puriso' si P ' " Ama bhante." 

* Bhujisso* si P * " Ama bhante." 
' Anano' si P * " Ama bhante." 

' Na' si rajabhato P * " Ama bhante." 

* Anuuiiato' si matapituhi ?* " Ama bhante." 

* Paripunna-visati- vasso 'si P * " Ama bhante." 

* Paripunnan te patta-clvaram P' " Ama bhante." 

* Kinnamo 'si P' " Aham bhante Nago nama." 

*Ko namo te upajjhayo P' "Upajjhayo me bhante aijasmd 
Tiasathero nama." 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ndgo di/asmato Tissassa 
upasampadjipekho. Anusittho so maya. 

Yadi sanghassa pattakallam, Ndgo agaccheyya. 

Agacchahiti vattabbo : 

Sangham bhante upasampadam yiicami : UUumpatu mam 
bhante sangho, anukampam upadiiya ! 

Dutiyam pi bhante sangham upasampadam yacami : Ullum- 
patu mam bhante sangho, anukampain upadaya ! 

Tatiyara pi bhante sangham upasampadam yacami : Ullum- 
patu mam bhante sangho, anukampam upadaya ! 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! ayam Ndgo dyasmato Tissassa 
upasampadjipekho. Yadi sanghassa pattakallam aham Ndgam 
antariiyike dhamme puccheyyam : 

Sunasi Ndga ! ayan te saccakalo bhiitakiilo. Yam jatam 
tarn pucchami : Santam atthiti vattabbam, asantam uatthiti 
vattabbam. 

Santi te evarOpa abadha : 

' Kutthain P ' " Natthi bhante." 

* Gando P' " Natthi bhante." 
' Kilaso P ' " Natthi bhante." 
'SosoP' " Natthi bhante." 

* Apamaro P ' " Natthi bhante." 

* Manusso' si P ' " Ama bhante." 

* Puriso' si P ' " Ama bhante." 

* Bhujisso' si P * " Ama bhante.* 

* Anano' si P * " Ama bhante." 



UPASAMPADA KAMMAVACA. 143 

* Na* si rajabhato ? ' " Ama bhante." 

* Anuilimto' si miitapituhi ? * " Ama bhante." 

* Paripunna-vlsati-vasso' si ? ' " Ama bhante." 

* Paripunnan te pattacivarara ? ' " Ama bhante." 

* Kinnumo' si ? ' " Aham bhante Ndgo nama." 

' Ko namo te upajjhayo ? ' " Upaj jhayo me bhante dyasmd 
Tismtthero nama." 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ayam Ndgo ayasmato Tissassa 
upasampadapekho, parisuddho antarayikehi dhammehi, pari- 
punn' assa patta-clvaram Ndgo sangham upasampadam yacati 
dyasmatd Tissena upajjhayena. 

Yadi sanghassa pattakallani sangho Ndgam upasampadeyya 
dyasmatd Tissena upajjhayena. 

Esd Natti : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ayam Nago ayasmato 
Tissassa upasampadapekho parisuddho antarayikehi dham- 
mehi paripunn' assa pattaclvaram Niigo sangham upasampa- 
dam yacati ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Sangho Niigam. 
upasampadeti ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Yassayasmato 
khamati Nagassa upasampada ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena, 
80 tunh' assa. Yassa na kkhamati, so bhaseyya. 

Dutiyam pi etam attham vadami : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! ayam Nago ayasmato Tissassa 
upasampadapekho parisuddho antarayikehi dhammehi pari- 
punn' assa pattacivarara Nago sangham upasampadam yacati 
ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Sangho Nagani upasampa- 
deti ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Yassayasmato khamati 
Nagassa upasampada ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena, so tunh' 
assa. Yassa na kkhamati, so bhaseyya. 

Tatiyam pi etam attham vadami. 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! ayam Niigo ayasmato Tissassa 
upasampadapekho parisuddho antarayikehi dhammehi pari- 
pun^* assa pattaclvaram Nago sangham upasampadam yacati 
ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Sangho Nagara upasampa- 
deti ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena. Yassayasmato khamati 
Nagassa upasampada ayasmata Tissena upajjhayena, so tunh' 
assa. Yassa na kkhamati so bhaseyya. 



144 UPASAMPADA KAMMAVACA. 

Upasarapanno sarighena Niigo ayasmatii Tissena upajjhii- 
yena : khamati saughassa : tasmu tunhi evam etain dhura- 
yainiti. 

Tiivadeva chiiyji metabbii ; 
Utupamiinam iicikkhitabbam ; 
Divasabhjlgo iicikkhitabbo ; 
Sahgiti ucikkbitabba. 

Cattiiro nissayii ucikkbitabba 

Cattari ca akaranlyani acikkhitabbani : 

1) " Phidiydlopahhojanam nissdya pahhajjd : tattha te yava- 
jlvam ussabo karanlyo. Atirekalilbho : Sangbabhattam, 
uddesabbattam, nimantanam, salakabbattam, pakkbikam, 
uposatbikara, patipadikam." " " Ama bbante ! " " 

2) " Pamsiikulaclvaram nissdya 2)abbaJ/d : tattha te yava- 
jlvam ussabo karanlyo. Atirekalilbho : khomam, kappiisi- 
kam, koseyyam, kambalara, sanara, bhaiigam." " " Ama 
bhante."" 

3) *' Rukkhamulasendsanam nissdya pahhajjd : tattha te 
yavajivain ussabo karanlyo. Atirekalabho : viharo addha- 
yogo, pasiido, hammiyam, guba." " " Ama bbante ! " " 

4) " Putimuttabhesajjam nissdya pahhajjd : tattha te yava- 
jlvam ussabo karanlyo. Atirekalabho : Sappi, navanitam, 
telam, madbu, phanitam." " " Ama bhante ! " " 

1) " Upasampannena hhikkhund methimo dhanimo na patisevi- 
iabho antamaso tiracchdnagatdya pi. Yo bhikkhu methunam 
dhammam patisevati assamano hoti asakyaputtiyo. Seyya- 
thiipi niima : Puriso sisacchinno abhabbo tena sarirabandba- 
nena jivitura, evam eva bhikkhu methunam dhammam pati- 
sevitva assamano boti asakyaputtiyo. Tan te yavajivam 
akaranlyani." " " Ama bhante ! " " 

2) " Upasampannena hhikkhund adinnam theyyasahkhdtam 
na addtahham antamaso tinasaldkam updddya, Yo bhikkhu 
pjidam vii padarabam vii atirekapjidam va adinnam theyya- 
sahkhatam adiyati, assamano hoti asakyaputtiyo. Seyyathlipi 
nama : Pandupaliiso bandhana pamutto abhabbo haritattSya 
evam eva bhikkhu padam va padarabam va atirekapadam va 



TICIVARENA AVIPPAVASA. 145 

adinnam theyyasankhutam adiyitva, assamano hoti asakya- 
puttiyo. Tan te yavajlvam akaranlyam." ** " Ama 
bhante!"" 

3) " Upasampannena hhikkhuna sanclcca pdnojlvitcL na voro- 
petabbo antamaso kHnthakipillikam updddya : Yo bhikkhu 
sailcicca raanussaviggaham jlvitii voropeti antamaso gabbha- 
patanam upadiiya assamano hoti asakyaputtiyo, Seyyathapi 
nama puthu sila dvedha bhinna appatisandhika hoti, evam eva 
bhikkhu sancicca manussaviggaham jivita voropetva assamano 
hoti, asakyaputtiyo. Tan te yavajlvam akaranlyam." " "Ama 
bhante."" 

4) " Upasampannena bhikkhund uttari-manussa-dhammo na 
uUapitabbo antamaso simndgdre abhirdmiti. Yo bhikkhu pa- 
piccho icchapakato asantam abhutam uttari-manussa-dham- 
mam uUapati jhanara va vimokkharn va samadhim va sama- 
pattim vji maggam va phalara va assamano hoti asakyaputtiyo. 
Seyyathapi nama : talo matthaka chinno, abhabbo puna vi- 
rulhaya evam eva bhikkhu papiccho icchapakato asantam 
abhutam uttari-manussa-dhammam ullapitva, assamano hoti 
asakyaputtiyo. Tan te yavajlvam akaranlyam." " " Ama 
bhante."" 



Chap. II. 

THE INVESTITURE OF A PRIEST WITH THE 
THREE ROBES. 

Sunatu me bhante sangho. Yo so sanghena ticivarena 
avippavaso sammato. Yadi sahghassa pattakallara sangho 
tarn ticivarena avippavasam samuhaneyya. 

Esd natti : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho : Yo so sanghena ticivarena 
avippavaso sammato, sangho tam ticivarena avippavasam 
samuhanati. Yass4yasmato khamati etassa ticivarena avippa- 

10 



146 XJPOSATHA KAMMAVACA. 

vasassa samugghato, so tunh* assa. Yassa na kkhamati so 
bhasej'ya. Samiihato so sanghena ticlvarena avippaviiso. 
Kliamati sahghassa tasmii tui'ibl evam etam dbarayamiti. 



Chap. III. 



THE FIXING OF A BOUNDAUY FOR THE PER- 
FORMANCE OF THE UPOSATHA. 

SunJitu me bhante sangbo ! Yii sa sangbena sima samma- 
nnitii samiinasamvasa ek' uposatba : yadi sangbassa patta- 
kallam sangbo tam simam samuhaneyya. 

Esd mtti: 

Suniltu rae bbante sangbo ! yii sa sangbena sTma sarama- 
nnita samanasamvasii ek' uposathii, sangbo tam sImam samii- 
banati. Yassayasmato kbamati etissii simaya samanasamva- 
sjiya ek' uposatbaya samuggbato so tunb' assa. Yassa na 
kkbamati, so bbiiseyya. Samubatii sa slmii sangbena samana- 
saraviisa ek' uposathii. Kbamati sangbassa tasmii tunbl evam 
etam dhiirayiimiti. 

* Purattbimiiya disiiya kin nimittara ?' " Piisiino bbante ! " 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! ' 

* Purattbimiiya anudisiiya kin nimittam ? ' " Pasiino 
bbante!" 

' Eso piisiino nimittam ! * 

* Dakkhiniij^a disiiya kin nimittara ? * " Piisiino bbante ! " 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! ' 

* Dukkbiniiya anudisiiya kin nimittam?' "Piisiino bbante!" 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! * 

* Paccbimiiya disiiya kin nimittara ?' " Pasiino bbante ! " 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! ' 

* Paccbimiiya anudisiiya kin nimittam ?' "Piisiino bbante !" 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! ' 

' Uttariiya disiiya kin nimittara ?' *' Piisiino bbante ! " 

* Eso piisiino nimittam ! ' 



KATHINA KAMMAVACA. 147 

'TJttariiya anudisiiya kin nimittam?* " Pasano bhante !'* 

* Eso pasano nimittam ! ' 

SunJitu me bhante sangho ! YuvatJi samanta nimitta 
kittitii : yadi sanghassa pattakallam sangho etehi nimittehi 
simam sammanneyya samuna-samvasam ek' uposatham. 

JEsd mtti : 

Suniitu me bhante sangho ! Yavata samanta nimitta kittita 
sangho etehi nimittehi sImam sammannati samanasamvasam 
ek' uposatham. Yassayasmato khamati etehi nimittehi sl- 
raaya sammuti samana-samvasaya ek' uposathjiya, so tunh' 
assa ! Yassa na kkhamati so bhaseyya ! Sammata sa sima 
sanghena etehi nimittehi samanasamviisa ek' uposatha. Kha- 
mati sanghassa tasma tunhl evam etam dharayamiti. 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ya sa sanghena sammata sa- 
manasamvasa ek' uposatha : Yadi sanghassa pattakallam 
sangho tam sImam ticivarena avippavasam sammaneyya tha- 
petva gamanca gamupacaranca. 

End fiatti : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ya sa sanghena sIma sammata 
samanasamvasa ek' uposatha sangho tam sImam ticivarena 
avippavasam sammannati thapetva gamanca gamupacaraiica. 

Yassayasmato khamati etissa simaya ticivarena avippava- 
saya sammuti thapetva gamanca gamupacarafica, so tunh* 
assa ! yassa na kkhamati so bhaseyya. 

Sammata sa sIma sanghena ticivarena avippavasii thapetva 
gamanca gamupacaranca. Khamati sanghassa tasma tunhi 
evam etam dharayamiti. 



Chap. IV. 

THE BESTOWMENT OF THE KAJHINA ROBE. 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Idam sanghassa kathina- 
dussam uppannain. Yadi sanghassa pattakallam, sangho 
imam kathinadussam itthannamassa bhikkhuno dadoyya 
kathinam attharitum. 



148 KATHINA KAMMAVACA. 

JEsd mtiL 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Idam sanghassa kathina- 
dussam uppannam. Sangho imam kuthinadussam itthanna- 
massa bhikkhuno deli kuthinam attharitum. Yass&yasmato 
khamati iraassa kathinadussassa itthannamassa bhikkhuno 
dilnam kathinam attharitum so tunh' assa. Yassa na kkha- 
mati 80 bhaseyj'a. Dinnam idam sahghena kathinadussam 
itthannamassa bhikkhuno kathinam attharitum. Khamati 
sanghassa, tasma tunhi, evam etam dharayamlti. 

Kathinadayakassa vattham atthi sace so tarn ajananto 
pucchati : " Bhante katham kathinam djitabban ti ? " 

Tassa evam acikkhitabbam : " " Tinnam civaranam ailfia- 
tara-pahonakam suriyuggamana-samaye vattham kathinacl- 
varam demii ti diitum vattatiti : 

" " Attharakena bhikkhuna sace sanghatiya kathinam 
attharitu kamo hoti, poranika sahghjiti paccuddharitabba : 
nava sanghati adhitthatabba, "imiiya sanghatiya kathinain 
attharamiti," vaca bhinditabbii. Tena kathinattharakena 
bhikkhuna sahgham upasahkamitva ekamsam uttarasangam 
karitva afijalim paggahetva evam assa vacanlyo : 

" Atthatara, bhante, sanghassa kathinam dhammiko kathi- 
nattharo, anumodatha ! " 

" " Atthatam avuso sanghassa kathinam dhammiko kathi- 
nattharo anumodama ti ! " " 

SunJitu me bhante sangho ! Yadi sanghassa pattakallam 
sangho kathinam uddhareyya. 

Ead hatii : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Yadi sanghassa pattakallam 
sangho kathinam uddharati. Yassayasmato khamati kathi- 
nassa ubbharo so tunh' assa ! yassa na kkhamati, so bha- 
seyya. 

Ubbhatam sahghena kathinam ! Khamati sanghassa tasma 
tunbi evam etam dharayamiti. 



THERA-SAMMUTI-NAMASAMMUTTI. 149 

Chap. V. 
THE ELECTION OF A PRIEST. 

Aham bhante itthannamam thera-sammutim iccharai ! 
soham, bhante, sangham itthannamam therasammutirn 
yacarai ! Dutiyam pi yacapetva, tatiyam pi yacapetva 
byattena bhikkhuna patibalena sarigho iiapetabbo : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! ayam itthannatno bhikkha 
sangham itthannamam therasammutirn yacati. Yadi san- 
ghassa pattakallam sangho itthannamassa bhikkhuno itthan- 
namam therasammutirn dadeyya. 

Esd natti : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ayam itthannamo bhikkhu 
sangham itthannamam therasammutirn yacati, sangho itthan- 
namassa bhikkhuno itthannamam therasammutirn deti. YasslL- 
yasmato khamati itthannamassa bhikkhuno itthannamam 
therasammutiya danam, so tunh' assa. Yassa na kkhamati 
so bhaseyya. Dinna sanghena itthannamassa bhikkhuno 
itthannamam therasammuti : khamati sanghassa tasma tunhi 
evam etam dharayamiti. 



Chap. YI. 

THE GIYING OF A NAME TO A PRIEST. 

Aham bhante itthannamam namasammutim icehami, soham 
bhante sangham itthannamam namasammutim yacamiti. 
Dutiyam pi yacapetva tatiyam pi yacapetva byattena bhi- 
kkhuna patibalena sangho napetabbo : 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! Ayam itthannamo bhikkhu 
sangham itthannamam namasammutim j'acati. Yadi sanghassa 
pattakallam sangho itthannamassa bhikkhuno itthanoamam 
namasammutim dadeyya. 

End natti : 



150 VIHARA KAMMAVACA. 

Sunatu me bhante sangho ! A^-am itthannamo bbikkhu 
sangbam itthannamam namasamrautim yacati : sahgbo 
itthannamassa bhikkbuno ittbanniimam namasammutim deti. 
Yassfiyaamato khamati ittbannamassa bliikkbuno ittbanna- 
mam niima sammutiya danam so tunb' asaa ! Yassa na kkba- 
mati so bhiiseyya. 

Dinna sahgbena ittbannamassa bbikkbuno ittbanniimam 
nilmasammuti : Kbamati sangbassa tasma tui^bi evam etam 
dbiirayamiti. 

Evam kammavacam katva byattena bbikkbuna patibalena 
databbo ti. 



Chap. VII. 
THE DEDICATION OF A YIHARA. 

Sunatu me bbante sangbo ; Yadi sangbassa pattakallara 
sahgbo ittbannamam vibaram kappiyabbumim sammanneyya. 

Esd natti : 

Sunatu me bbante sangbo ! Sangbo ittbannamam viba- 
ram kappiyabbumim sammannati. Yass&yasmato kbamati 
ittbannamassa vibarassa kappiya bbumiyii sammuti so tunb* 
assa : Yassa na kkbamati so bbaseyya. Sammato sahgbena 
itthannamo vibiiro kappiyabbumi. Kbamati sangbassa tasma 
tunbi evam etam dbiirayamiti. 



HANDBOOK OF PALI. 



III. GLOSSARY. 



GLOSSARY. 



A, aud before vowels AN, a negative 
particle ; used only in composi- 
tion. 

AMSO, a part, a period of time. 

AMSO, AMSAM, shoulder. 

a-kattho (adj.), not ploughed. 

a-kano, rice freed from the red coat- 
ing which underlies the husks. 

a-kanto (adj.), unpleasant, disagree- 
able. 

tt-kaliko (adj.), without delay (epi- 
thet of the dhamma), immediate. 

a-kuppo (adj.), firm, immoveable. 

a-kusalo (adj.), had, evil, sinful. 

a-kkuddho (adj.), not violent. 

akkha-dhutto, gambler. 

akkhata (m.), one who tells. 

a-kkhati, to tell. 

AKKHO, a die. 

AGGAM, point, top, extremity. 

AGGI (m.), fire. 

AGGO (adj.), first, foremost. 

ANGAM, limb ; share, quality, at- 
tribute. 

acceti, to pass beyond, to over- 
come ; p. p. p. atito, past. 

AJJA (adv.), now, to-day. 

ajjatagge, henceforward . 

AJJHAITAM, individual thought. 



ajjhattarh (adv.), relating to the in- 
dividual. 
ajjhattiko (adj.), internal, belonging 

to the individual. 
AJJHAYAKO, a preceptor. 
ANJALI (m.), the hollow of the 

joined hands. 
annataro, one, a certain. 
ANNA (f.) knowledge. 
anhatra (adv.), otherwise, with the 

exception of. 
ANNO, other. 
ATTO, a case, a cause. 
ATTHA (num.), eight. 
atthahgiko (adj.), eightfold. 
atthamo, eighth. 
ATTHI (n.), bone; caus. atthiyati, 

to treat as a bone. 
ATTHI'^"NJA (f.), marrow. 
ATTHO, reason. 
APPHAYOGO (t. t.), large hall. 
anuko (adj.), very small. 
ANNAVO, the sea, the ocean. 
ATI (adv. and prep.), over, beyond, 

exceeding, before vowels ace. 
ati-go (adj.), escaping from. [gant. 
ati-mannati, to despise, to be arro- 
ati-mant (adj.), proud. 
ATIREKALABHO (t. t.), extra 

allowance. 



151 



GLOSSARY. 



ATTA (n.), self, mind (for declen- 
sion, see Grammar). 

A'lTHA (adv.), here. [arice. 

ATTIIAM (Skr. tuta), disappear- 

att/ia-gamo, atthan, disappearance, 
annihilation. 

a-ttharati, to spread out. 

atthdya (adv.), for the good of. 

AT'l'HI, to he (for conjugation, see 
Grammar). 

ATTHO, reason, desire ; property. 

ATHA, ATHO (adv.), and ; hut. 

a-thuso (adj.), free from husk. 

a-dlnnaddnaih, taking what is not 
given. 

ADDHANAM, a road ; a long time. 

ADHAMO (adj.), lowest. 

AD HI (adv. and prep.), above, over; 
frequently in composition before 
vowels ajjh. 

adhi-titthati, to devote oneself. 

adhi-tthanam, resting-place. 

ADHI-PATI (m.), lord, chief. 

adhi-bhdsati, to address ; aor. ajjha- 
blidsi. 

adhi-vahanath, carrying. 

adhi-vdsanam, the assent, [accept. 

adhi-vdseti (cans.), to consent, to 

a-nano, free from debt. 

an-attd (m.), not a self. 

an-atto (adj.), without individu- 
ality, unreal. 

an-attha-samhito, profitless. 

an-anu-giddho, without greediness. 

un-anu-s8uto (adj.), unheard of. 

an-anto, without end, innumerable. 

ANA-BHAVO, non-existence; ana- 
bhdvarh gacchatl, to come to 
nothing, to perish. 



an-abhirati, dissatisfaction. 
an-arahd, not being a saint. 
an-ariyo, ignoble. 
anavajjata (f.), blamelessness. 
anavajjo (adj.), blameless. 
an-avayho (adj.), not to be given in 

marriage. 
an-avaseso, without remainder. 
an-avilo, clear from. 
andkulo, untroubled. 
andgato, future, coming. [less. 

andlayo, free from desire, passion- 
A-NICCO (adj.) (t. t.), perishable, 

not lasting. 
anittho (adj.), unpleasant. 
ANU (adv. and prep.), after, later ; 

along, again, in consequence. 
anu-kat/^ati, to recite. 
anu-kampako, compassionate. 
anu-kampl, compassionate. 
anu-jdndti, to permit ; p. p. p. anuh- 

nato. 
ati'Utthdnam, want of energy. 
anu-tthitati, to make to follow. 
an-uttaro (adj.), than which none is 

higher, the highest. 
anudisd, (f.), an intermediate point 

of the compass. 
an-up-pagacchati, not to embrace. 
anu-para-yati, to walk round and 

round. 
anu-passi (adj.), looking at, contem- 
plating. 
anu-pubbaso (adv.), in regular order. 
anuppanno, not arisen. 
an-uppddo, not arising. 
anu-ydti, to follow. 
anu-yogo, being addicted to. 
anu-rakkhati, to protect. 



GL088ART. 



156 



ANU-8AY0 (t. t.), repentance. 
anusari (adj.), fullowing;. 
anu-gdsati, to teach. 
anu-ssarati, to call in mind. 
anu-asaveti (cans.), to cause to be 

heard, to proclaim. 
an-ejo (adj.), free from desire. 
an-ottapi (adj.), fearless of sinning. 
ANTAM, the intestines, bowels. 
ANTAGUNAM, mesentery. 
antamaso, even. 
ANTARA (adv. and prep.), within, 

between, among. 
antara-dhanam, disappearance. 
antara-dhayati, to vanish, to hide ; 

p. p. p. antarahito, vanished. 
antardyiko, causing an obstacle. 
ANTARA- VASAKO (t. t.), under- 

garment worn by a Buddhist 

priest. 
ANTALIKKHAM, sky, air. 
ANTIMO, last, final. 
ANTO (adv. and prep.), within, in, 

inside ; see also antara, 
ANTO (also neuter), end, limit. 
ANDHO (adj.), blind. 
andha-koro, darkness. 
ANNAM, food. 
APAMARO, epilepsy. 
a-pamuttho (adj.), not left behind. 
a-pardjito, unconquered. 
a-parimdno (adj.), immense, unde- 
fined. 
a-pariydddnarh, not taking up, not 

laying hold of. 
APARO (adj.), other, subsequent; 

western. 
a-pddako, having no feet. 
APAYO [going away], hell. 



APf, PI (part.), also, even. 

a-pUuno (adj.), not calumnious. 

ap-eti, to go away. 

appa-kicco, having few cares. 

a-pjHigabbho, not arrogant. 

a-ppati-sandiko, that cannot be 
united. 

appa-nigghoso, free from noise. 

a-ppa-matto, vigilant, careful. 

O'ppamdno (adj.), infinite. 

a-ppo'Ttiddo, vigilance, zeal. 

appa-saddo, free from noise. 

a-ppu-tanno, dissatisfied. 

a-ppiyo, not dear, hateful. 

APPO (adj.), small, weak ; fre- 
quently in composition. 

abbh-ug-gacchati, to reach. [sire. 

A-BY-APADO (t.t.), absence of de- 

a-bhabbatd (f.), non-liability. 

a-bhabbo (adj.), incapable. 

a-bhayam, safety from danger. 

ABHI (adv. and prep.), exceeding; 
in, into. 

abhi-kkanto, handsome, beautiful. 

abhl-kkanto (p. p. p.), abhikkamati, 
advanced. 

abhi-kkamati, to step forward. 

abhi-kkamo, advancing. 

abhi-gtto, (p. p. p.), recited. 

nbhijdndti, to know ; g^r. abhinnd. 

ABHIJJHA (f.), covetousness. 

abhi-t'ttthati, to surpass. 

ABHITTHANAM (t. t.), crime, 
d'adly sin. 

ABHINHAM (adv.), repeatedly. 

abhinhato (adv.), repeatedly, [with. 

ab/ii-nandati, to rejoice, to l>e pleased 

ABHINIBBATTI (f.) (t.t.), re- 
birth ia another existence. 



IM 



GLOSSARY. 



abhi-niveno, adhering to. 

abhi-paleti, to guard, to keep. 

abhi-ppa-modayam, rejoicing. 

abhi-ramati, to delight. 

abhi-rudo, cooing, singing. 

abhi-ruhati, to mount. 

abhi-vastati, to cause to rain. 

abhi-vadeti, caus. of abhivadati, to 
salute. 

ah/ii-sameti, to penetrate. 

a-bhojaneyyo, not to be eaten. 

a-mato (adj.), immortal. 

a-inanapo (adj.), uupleasing, un- 
pleasant. 

a-manoramo (adj.), unpleasant. 

a-mitto, enemy. 

ARANNAM, forest. 

ARAHA ARAHAM (m.), a vener- 
able person. 

ARAHO (adj.), worth. 

ARIYO (adj.), honourable, vener- 
able, noble. 

ARIYA-SACCAM (t. t.), sublime 
truth. 

ALAM (adv.), sufficient. 

ALASO (adj.), idle. 

ALOKO, intuition. 

alliyati, to be attached, to adhere. 

alltko (adj.), being addicted, ad- 
hering. 

AVA and O (prep, and adv.), away, 
off; down. 

ava-jdndti, to despise. 

ava-ruddho (adj.), obstructed. 

a-viddasu, ignorant. 

a-vippavato, not parting. 

a-vi-rufho (adj.), not grown. 

a-vivayho (adj.), not marriageable. 

avihimaa (f.), mercy, humanity. 



avecca, gerund, of ava + yj i, to 
penetrate. 

a-veram, fricudliuess. 

a-anto (adj.), not good, wicked. 

a-ammoho (adj.), without infatua- 
tion. 

a-sallino, not cowering, resolute. 

ASlTI (num.), eighty. 

ASU (pron.), tliis, that (see Gram- 
mar) ; amumhi (loc.), here. 

a-suci (adj.), unclean. 

a-$ubho (adj.), bad. 

ASURO, an asura. 

a-aeso (adj.), without rest ; all, every. 

a-so/co, free from sorrow. 

ASNATI, to eat. [ness. 

asiddo, tasting ; enjoyment, happi- 

a-ssasati, to inhale air. 

ASSO, horse. 

AHAM (pron.), I (see Grammar). 

AH I (m.), a snake. 

AHO (interjection). 



A (prep.), until, as far as. 

a-kankhati, to desire. 

a-kapjM, ornament, disguise. 

d-gacchatiy to come. 

a-cikkhati, to tell, to announce, to 

investigate. 
ajahno (adj.), of noble birth, [hood. 
d-jtvo, livelihood, means of liveli- 
ATAPO, sunshine. 
ATAPI (adj.), ardent, zealous. 
a-ddti, to take ; pass, ddiyati. 
ADICCO, the sun. 
AdINAVO, distress, suffering ; 

evil result. 
dnantariko (adj.), uninterrupted. 



0L08SART. 



W7 



AxAPAXAIVr (t. t.), inlniled and 
exhaled lireath. 

ANISAMSO, advjintage, profit. 

aiiub/iavava(At\j.), possessing power. 

anu-bhavo, power, dignity. 

a-net't, to I)ring home. 

apadeta (m.), inflioter, causer. 

abadhiko (adj.), affected with illness. 

ABADHO, illness. 

a-b/iujati, to bend, to turn. 

AMA (interj.), yes, truly. 

a-manteti, to address. [sphere. 

A YATANAM (t. t.), organs of sense ; 

a-t/atiko, future. 

AYASMA, old, venerable. 

AYASO, despair. 

AYU (n.), life. 

a-yuto (adj.), endowed with. 

a-raddho (p. p. p. to aradhaii), ac- 
complished. 

a-rahhati, to begin, to attempt, 
to exert oneself; ger. arabbha ; 
p. p. p. araddho. 

AR AMO, pleasure, pleasure-garden. 

a-ruhati, to ascend. 

a-varanam, covering. 

avaso, abode. 

avahati, to convey. 

AVI (adv.), manifestly, in full view 
(see Grammar). 

a-Duati, to enter, to approach. 

AVUSO (voc. to ai/asmd), friend! 

asanam, a seat. 

A-SAVO (t. t), literally influence; 
human passion ; khtnasavo, one in 
whom human passiou is extinct. 

ASEVi (adj.), addicted to. 

Aha, to 8|ieak (see (jrammar). 

ahanati, to strike. 



AhARO, food. 
a-huti (f.), offering. 
ahuneyyo (adj.), sacrificial, wor- 
shipful, worthy of offerings. 



INGHA (interj.), come ! pray ! 
ICCHATI. to wish. 
ICCHA, wish, desire, lust. 
INJATI, to move, to be shaken. 
INAM, debt. [sant. 

ITTHO (adj.), desired, good, plea- 
ITI, TI (conj.), thus. 
ITTHATTAM, present condition. 
itthan-namo, having such and such 

a name, thus named. 
ITTH I (f.), woman (for declension, 

see Grammar). 
IDDHI (f.) (t. t.), supernatural 

power. 
iddhiko (adj.), possessed of iddhi 

(supernatural power). 
iddhimd, possessed of supernatural 

power. 
IDHA (adv.), here, hither. [gwte. 
indakhllo, pillar in front of a city 
INDO, king, chief. 
INDRIYO (t. t.), faculty. 
ISI, a priest ; maheai (idem). 
iaaariyam, dominion. 
ISSARO, master, chief. 
ISSA, jealousy, envy, 

I. 

Is A, pole of a plough. 

U. 

uk-kujjeti, to set up again. 
Hg-gacchati, to rise. 



158 



GLOSSARY. 



ug-gafihati, to rise, to lift np, to 
learn. 

ug-gamanath, rise. 

UGGO, violent. 

UCCA (indecl.), as Jirst part qf 
compounds high ; uccdsayanath, 
high seat. 

UC-CARO, excrement. 

UJU (adj.), straight. 

uj-jhayati, to be irritated, annoyed. 

u-tthahati, to rise, to stand up, to 
exert oneself; p. p. p. vutthito. 

UNNA-NABHI (m.), spider. 

UNHAM, heat. 

UNHO (adj.), hot. 

UIjARO (adj.), mighty, great. 

UTU (m. f. n.), season. [most. 

UTTAMO (superl.), highest, ut- 

UTTARA-SANGO, tlie upper yel- 
low garment of a Buddhist priest. 

UTTARO (adj.), higiier; northern. 

UTTANO, supine ; open, evident, 
clear, easy ; adv. uttdni and 
uttdnd, clearly. 

ut-trasati, to tremble. 

UD (prep., only used in composi- 
tion), above, away ; outside, out. 

UDAKAM, water. 

UDARAM, belly. 

udariyam, stomach. 

UDANAM, solemn utterance. 

uddneti (cans.), to breathe forth. 

ud-eti, to come up. 

UDDHAM, upwards. 

ud-dharati, to draw out ; to lift up. 

UPA (adv. and prep ), near to ; 
below, less. 

upa-cdro, approach ; gamupacdro, 
the approach to a village. 



upa-jwati, to subsist by. 

upajj hdpeti, to command. 

UPAJJHO, preceptor. 

upa-tthanam, attendance. 

upa-tthito (p. p.p.), ready, present. 

upaddho, half, partial. 

upa-dissati, to be seen, discovered. 

UPADHI (t. t.), a substratum of 
being. 

upandmfiti (cans.), to offer. 

UPA-NAHl (adj.), bearing hatred. 

upa-ni-pajjati, to lie down. 

upanissdya, near, close to. 

upa-nisso, residing in. 

upa-pajjati, to come to, to attain. 

upamo, highest. 

uparimo (adj.), uppermost. 

upa-vadati, to blame. 

upa-san-kamati, to go to, to ap- 
proach. 

upa-samo, quietude, calm. 

UPASAMPADA (f.) (t. t.), the upa- 
sampada ordination. 

upasampaddpekho, wishing for ordi- 
nation. 

UPADANAftl (t. t.), clinging to 
existence, attachment ; okhandhdf 
element of being. 

upd-diyati, to take hold ; anukam- 
path updddya, taking pity. 

updydso, despair. 

UPAYO, means of success. 

UPASAKO, fem. UPASIKA (t. t.), 
a lay devotee. 

UPEKHA (f.), indifference, equa- 
nimity. 

npekkhako, resigfned, patient. 

up-eti, to go, to approach ; pd^u- 
peto, living, possessed of breath. 



OLOSSART. 



159 



UPOSATHIKAlCf (t. t.), food 
offered on full-moon days. 

UPOSATHO (t. t.), the Buddhist 
Sabbnth-day. 

vp-pajjati, to arise. 

uppanno, p. p. p. to uppajati. 

UBBHARO=UDDHARO (t. t.), 
rooting up. 

ul-lapati, to lay claim to, to assert. 

ul-lumpati, to lift up. 

ul-loketi, to look up. 

ussaho, exertion. 

E. 

ekaggo (adj.), calm, tranquil. 

eha-cco (adj.), one, a certain. 

eka-m-antam (adv.), on one side. 

EKO (num.), one ; alone. 

EKO (adj.), single, solitary. 

EKODIBHAVO (t. t.), unity, per- 
haps 'predominance.' 

etarahi (adv.), now. 

etadiso, such like. 

ETI, to go, to enter (with ace). 

EVA and EVAM (adv.), thus. 

ESANA (f.), wish, desire. 

ESl (adj.), seeking, desiring. 

ehi-passiko (adj.), inviting (epithet 
of the dhamma). 

O. 

o-kaso, room, place. 

O'kkanti ({.), descent. 

OGHO, flood, torrent. 

opanayiko, leading to perfection 

(epithet of the dhamma). 
otthdvo (adj.), steady. 
ODATO, white, pure. 
opako, without result. 



o-pildpeti, to let float. 

o-bhasati, to shine. 

o-bhaso, light. 

o-hito (p. p. p.), put down, deposited. 

K. 

KAIVfSO, metal, bronze. 
KANKHATI, to doubt. 
KACCHURO, scab. 
KATHINAM (t. t.), a robe made 

for a Buddhist priest in a single 

day, out of the rough material. 
K AT HI NO (adj.), hard, solid. 
KANDU (f.), itch. 
KANNO, ear. 

KANHO (adj.), black, sinful. 
katapuhnatd, meritorlousness. 
KATAMO (pron.), what ? which ? 
KATHAM (adv.), how. 
KATHA (f.), discourse. 
kad-ariyo, a bad man. 
KANTO (a(^j.), loved, agreeable. 
KAPPASIKAM, cotton. 
KAPPIYO (adj.), fit, right, proper; 

kappiyabhumi, a suitable site. 
KAPPETI (cans.), to enter upon, to 

arrange. 
KAPPO, time; rule; ordinance; all, 

the whole ; kevalakappo, whole. 
KAMPATI, to shake. 
KAMBAKAM, woollen garment. 
KAMMAM, doing, action. 
kammanta (f.), calling. 
kammanto, conduct ; occupntiuu, 

work, 
kamma-vipako, result of actions. 
kamyata ({.), desire. 
KARAI^AM, making. 
KARlSAM, excrement. 



100 



GLOSSARY. 



KARUIVA. (f.), compassion. 
KAROTI, to make (see Grammar); 

mantuikaroti, to piiy attention ; 

kalaiikaroti, to die ; anjalim 

karoti, to salute respectfully. 
KALEBARAM, a corpse. 
K AS ATI, to plough. 
kasi, ploughing. 
kassako, a ploughman. 
KAMO, wish, desire ; lust, pasgion. 
KAYO, body. 

kayiko (adj.), bodily, physical. 
KARl (adj.), doing, acting. 
KARO, making, constituent part. 
kalakiriyd (f.), death. 
KALO, time; kalena, in due time; 

bhattakalo, meal-time. 
kdlam mahhati, he deems it right. 
KASO, a cough. 
-KIM (adv.), why, pray? what. 
khhsu, what. 

kihci[d), anything, whatsoever. 
KINCIKKHAM, a trifle. 
KITTAYATI, kitteti, to proclaim. 
KITTI (f.), fame. 
KIPILLIKO, an ant. [tion. 

KILAMATHO, fatigue, mortifica- 
KILASO, scab, dry leprosy. 
KiRAM, meat. 
KlVA (adv.), how? 
KUKUCCAM, misconduct. 
KUKUTTHAKO, Phasiunus gal- 

lus, a bird. 
KUCCHI(f.), belly. 
KU^JARO, elephant. 
KUTTHAM, leprosy. 
KUNTHO, an ant. 
KUMARO, hoy. 
kumari ((.), a girl. 



KULAIVI, flock, herd ; family. 
kulaputto, son of noble family ; 

high caste. 
KULlRAKO, a crab. 
KUSALO (adj.) (t. t.), skilful. 
KCLAM, rag. [complished. 

KEVALl (m.) (t.t.), one who is ac- 
KEVALO (adj.), whole, entire. 
KESO, hair. 
KO (inter, pron.), who ? which ? 

what ? (see Grammar). 
koci, whosoever. 
KOST.A, heron. 
KODHO, anger. 

kovido, knowing, acquainted with. 
KOPlNAM, pudenda. 
KOSEYYAM, silken stuff. 

KH. 

KHANO, moment (brief measure 
of time). 

khandiccam, state of being broken. 

KHATTIYO, warrior. 

KHANTi (f.), patience. 

KHANDO, the shoulders ; 1. 1. ele- 
ment of being. 

KHAMATI, to endure ; to forgive ; 
to be approved. 

KHAYO, extinction, vanishing. 

KHARO, solid; harsh. 

KHASA (f.), scab. 

KHIPATI, to throw. 

KHIYATI, to decrease, to waste 
away; to murmur; p. p. p. khijio. 

KHILO, a pin, a stake. 

KHUDDO (adj.), mean. 

KHURO, hoof of a horse or ox. 

KHELO, saliva, phlegm. 

KHETTAld, land, district. 



GLOSSARY. 



161 



KHEMAI!^, safety, well-being ; 

yogakkhemam, nibbana. 
KHEMO, fern. KHEMi (adj.), 

secure. 
KHO (inter).), indeed. 
KHOMAM, linen. 

G. 

GACCHATI, to go (see Grammar). 

GANG, multitude. 

GANDO, goitre. 

GANH ATI, to take, to seize ; p. p. p. 
gahito. 

GANTHETI, to tie, to bind. 

GANDO, smell, odour. 

GABBHARO, a cleft. 

GABBHO, womb, belly. 

GAMBHiRO (adj.), deep. 

gammo, accessible. 

GARAHA (f.), blame. 

GARU (m.), parent, teacher. 

garu-karo, respect. 

GAHATTHO, a householder. 

GATHA, stanza. 

gamini (adj.), leading. 

GAMO, village. 

^ara^Ao (adj.), blameable; contemp- 
tible. 

GARAVO, reverence. 

gavi, cow. 

GIMHO, heat. 

GIMHANAM, hot season. 

GIRA, voice, speech. 

GIRI, mountain. 

GILATI, to devour. 

GILANO (adj.), sick, iU. 

OITAM, singing, a song. 

GUTTI (f.), guarding. 

GUMBO, a bush, a thicket. 



GUHA (f.), rock-cave. 
GEDHO, greediness. 
GO (m. f.), ox, cow (see Grammar). 
GOTTAlVr, famUy, lineage. 
GOPATI, to protect, to guard; 
p. p. p. gutto, cp. kayagutto. 

GH. 

GHARAIVI, house. 

gharamen, leading the life of a 

householder. 
GHARO, house. 
GHANAM, nose. 
GHAYATI, to smeU. 

C. 

CA (conj.), and, also. 
CAKKHU (n.), eye, insight. 
cakkhumd (adj.), having eyes, 

having insight, 
CANDO (adj.), wrathful, passionate. 
catuttho, fourth ; catutthath, for 

the fourth time. 
catud-disam, the four cardinal 

points. 
catup-pado, having four feet. 
CATTARO (num.), four; cataio 

((.), cattari (n.). 
CARANAM, good conduct. 
CARATI, to go. 
CAVATI, to disappear ; p. p. p. 

cuto. 
CAVANAlfl, disappearance, death. 
CAGO, liberality, self-sacrifice ; 

abandoning. 
CICCITAYATI, to splash. 
CITTAM, mind. 
cittako (adj.), mindful. 
CINTETI, to think. 

11 



162 



6I.088ART. 



CiVARAM, robe. 

CUTI, disappearing, death. 

cetasiko (adj.), mental. 

CETO, mind. 

ceto-vimutti, emancipation of mind. 

CORO, a tliief. 

CH. 

CHA (num.), six. 

CHATTHO, sixtli. 

CHAPPETI, to tlirow away, to 

renounce. 
CHANDO, wish, resolve, intention. 
CHAMBHATI, to be alarmed. 
CHAMBHITATTAM, trembling. 
CHAYA (f.), shadow. 
CHINDATI, to cut off. 

J. 

Janapado, a country. 

janeti (caus. jay at i), to bring forth, 

to produce. 
JANETTI, a mother. 
JANO, man, person, being. 
JARA (f.), old age, decay. 
JARO, fever. 
JALATI, to bum. 
JAHATf, to leave behind. 
JATARCPAM, gold. 
JATI (f.), birth. 
JATU (adv.), verily. 
Jato (p. p. p.), lomahatthajato, the 

hair standing on end terrified. 
JANATI, to know. [duced. 

JAY ATI, to be bom, to be pro- 
JALA (f.), flame. 
JIGUCCHATI, to dislike. 
JIOHACCHA (f.), hunger. 
jinnako (adj.), old. 



JIVHA (f.), tongue. 

JlRANAM, growing old; decay. 

JlRATI, to g-r()w ohl. 

JiVIKA (f.), livelihood, life. 

JIVITAM, life. 

JIVI (adj.), living. 

JUTI (f.), splendour ; jutima, po8- 

sesf^ed with splendour. 
JO, at last part of a compound 

' arising from.' 

JH. 
JHANAM (t. t.), meditation. 

SATTI (f.), announcement, declara- 
tion, formula. 
^ANAM, knowledge. 
]SATAK0, a relative. 
5^ATI, kinsman. 
NAYO, right method. 

p. 

DAMSO, a gad-fly. 

PASATf, to bite ; p. p. p. dattho. 

PAHO, burning. 

TH. 

XHANl (adj.), having breasts ; 

timbarutthani, having breasts 

like a tinduka fruit. 
THANAM, standing. 
thanaso (adv.), causally, necessarily. 
THITI (f.), durability; life. 

T. 

TAOGHA (adv.), verily. 

TACO, skin. 

TANDULO, rice ready for boiling. 



GLOSSARY. 



163 



TANHA (f.), lust, desire; maha- 
tanho, Imviiig great desire. 

tatiyo, third ; tatlyam, for the 
third time. 

TATRA (adv.), tliere. 

TAPASSi (m.), hermit. 

TAPO, penance. 

TAMO, darkness. [tint. 

TAYO (num.), three; f. tisso, n. 

TARATI, to cross, to overcome. 

TALAM, surface, level. 

TASO (adj.), moving, moveable. 

TALO, fan-palm. [mar). 

TITTHATI, to stand (see Grana- 

TINAM, grass. 

TIDDANAM, destroyer. 

TIMBARU (m.). the tinduka-tree. 

tiracchdnagato, a beast, an animal. 

TIRIYAM (adv.), across. 

TU (particle), now, but. 

TUNDlKiRO, cotton-tree. 

TUNHI (adv.), silently. 

TUVATAM (adv.), quickly. 

TEJO (n.), splendour. 

TELAM, rape-oil. 

TVAM (pron.), you, thou (see 
Grammar). 

TH. 

THADDHO (adj.), firm, stubborn, 
proud ; jati-tthaddho, proud of his 
birth. 

THANAYATI, to thunder. 

THAVARO (adj.), stationary, firm. 

THERO, a priest, an elder. 

THOLO (adj.), big. 

D. 
DAKKHATA (f.), kUL 



DAKKHINO (adj.), right-handed; 

southern. 
DAKKHINEYYO (adj.), worthy of 

oflfe rings. 
DALHO (adj.), firm. 
DANDO, a staff. 
DADATI, to give (see Grammar, 

p. 56). 
DADDALLATI, to blaze, to shine 

brilliantly. 
DADDU (f.), leprosy. 
DANTO, a tooth. 
DAMO, self-command. 
dammo (adj.), to be tamed. 
DAYA (f.), mercy, pity. 
DARl (f.), a cave. 
DAVO, amusement. 
DASA (num.), ten. 
DASSANAM, insight, discernment. 
DANAM, alms. 
DANI (adv.), now. 
DAYADO, kinsman. 
DAYO, a forest. 
DARO, DARA, wife. , 

DASO, slave. 
di-jo, twice born. 
ditthapado, one who has seen the 

state {i.e. Nibbana). 
DITTHA (interjection). 
DITTHI (f.), view, beUef. 
DIBBO (adj.), celestial. 
DIVASO, a day. 
divasd (adv.), during the day. 
diva ca ratio, day and night. 
DISA (f.), a point of the compass. 
disaati (pass, of passati), to be seen. 
DiGHO (adj.), long. 
DUKKHAM (t.t.), pain. 
DUG-GATI, hell, bad place. 



un 



GL088ART. 



dutiyo, second ; dutiyath (adv.), fur 

the second time. 
duvijano, difficult to understand. 
DUSSAM, cloth. 
DOBHATI, to illtreat. 
durato (adv.), from far. 
DORE (adv.), far. 
deva-ko, god. 
devatd, a deva. 
devaputto, a god. 
DEVO, a god. 

DESAYATI, deseti, to preach. 
DESO, country. 
DESSi, hater. 
DEHO, body. 

domanasaam, dejection, gloom. 
DOSO (Skr. dvesha), anger, hatred. 
DOSO (Skr. dosha), defect, blemish. 
DVAYO, of two sorts, divers. 
dvi-padako, having two feet. 
DVE (num.), two. 
dvedha (adv.), in two parts. 

DH. 

DHAJAGGAM, flag. 

DHANAM, property, wealth. 

DHAMMO (t. t.), law, condition ; 
ditthadhammo, the visible condi- 
tion, the present world. 

uttarimanuasa-dhavimo, superhu- 
man condition. 

dhamma-vicayo, religious research. 

DHAMMO (adj.), religious ; fem. 
dhammi. 

DHATU (n. and f.), substance; 
principle. 

DHARANAM, bearing in mind. 

dharayati (cans.), to bear in mind. 

DHITI (f.)f wisdom, energy. 



DHiRO (adj.), wise. 
DHUTTO, fraudulent. 
DHUNATI, to shake. 
dhurava, taking the yoke. 
DHURO, ayoke. 
DHORAYHO, beast of burden. 

N. 

NA (neg.), not. 

NAKHO, nail of the finger. 

NAGARAM, a town. 

NANGALAM, plough. 

NACCAM, dancing. 

NANDI (f.), joy. 

NAMATI, to bow down. 

NAM ASS ATI, to honour. 

NAMO (indecl.), honour, reverence 

(with the dative). 
NARASA BHO, chief of men. 
NARO, man. 
NALINi (f.), a pond. 
NAVA (num.), nine. 
NAVANlTAM, cream. 
tiavamo, ninth. 
NAVO (adj.), new. 
NAHATAKO (t. t.), one in whom 

spiritual instruction is complete ; 

who is cleansed, pure. 
NAHARU, tendon, muscle. 
NAGO, a serpent ; susunago, a 

young serpent. 
NALIKERO, coconut-tree. 
NANATTAM, diversity. 
NANA (adv.), various, different ; 

away from. 
ndna-pjtakdro, of various sorts. 
NAMA (adv.), by name ; indeed. 
NAMAM, name ; namanpam (t. t.). 
ndmaso (adv.), with name. 



GLOSSARY. 



1 



NIKAYO, assembly, multitude ; 
sa^^an/Arayo, assemblage of beings. 

NI (prep., only iu composition), 
downwards. 

NI and NIR (prep., only in com- 
position), outward. 

ni-kubbati, to deceive. 

nik-kanii (adj.), free from desire. 

nik-kttjjito, what has been over- 
thrown. 

nik-k/iamati, to go out. 

nik-khamati, to devote. 

ni-kkhepo, putting down ; inter- 
ment. 

NIGAMO, a town. 

ni-gdhako, an oppressor, enemy. 

NIGRODHO, banyan-tree. 

NICCO (adj.), perpetual. 

ni-jigimsati, to covet. 

ni-pako (adj.), prudent. 

ni-patati, to fall down. 

NIBBATI (t.t.), to be extinguished, 
to go out. 

NIBBANAM (t. t.), the summum 
bonum of the Buddhists. 

NIBBUTI, tranquillity (Nibbdna). 

nibbuto (t. t.), free from care, or 
having attained Nibbana. 

nibhdsi (adj.), shining. 

NIMANTANAM (t. t.), invitation. 

NIMITTAM, sign, mark; subject 
of thought. 

nit/ydniko, leading to salvation. 

NIYO (adj.), own. 

NIRAYO, hell. 

nt-rt<i//}a/t (pass.), to cease, to perish. 

NIRODHO (t.t.), cessation. 

NIVATO, humility. [off. 

ni-vareti (cans.), to keep off, to ward 



ni-vdsi (adj.), dwelling. 

ni-vdseti, to dress. 

ni-vesanam, house, abode. 

ni-vutOy obstructed. 

ni-sdmeti, to attend, listen to. 

ni-sidati, to sit down. 

NISSAYO (t. t.), resource ; cattdro 

nissaya, 
nis-saranarh, outcome, result. 
nis-sdya (ger.), dependent upon. 
nihtno (adj.), low, vile. 
NICO (adj.), low, mean, base. 
nt-yati, to go out. 
NONA (adv.), surely. 
nekkhammam, giving up the world. 
ne-katiko, fallacious. 
NETTAM, eye. 

P. 

PA (prep.), frequently in composi- 
tion, before, onward. 

PAMSU (n.), dust, dirt. 

pa-kdsati, to be visible, to manifest. 

PAKKHANDIKA (f.), diarrheea. 

PAKKHI (adj.), possessed with 
wing. 

PARK H IK AM (t. t.), a feast held 
on the eighth day of the month. 

pa-kkhipati, to throw. 

pa-gumbo, thicket. 

pa-gganhdti, to hold out, to bring 
forth, to get ready. 

PACATI, to cook. 

pa-cdro, attendant. 

pacca-kdlo, present time. 

PACCAITAM (adv.), singly. 

paccantko (adj.), adverse, hostile, 
opposite. 

PACCAYO, a requisite. 



160 



OLOSSART. 



pacca-vekkhati, to look at. 

pacc-ud-a-vattati, to retreat. 

pacceko, each one, single, several. 

PACCHIMO (adj.), l.indermost, 
last ; pacchimd disd, the west. 

pa-jahati, to abandon. 

PA J A (f.), progeny, race. 

pa-jjalat't, to burn, to blaze. 

pa-janati, to know, to understand ; 
caus. pahndpeti, to make known ; 
p. p. p. panhatto. 

pajdyati, to multiply. 

pajjalati, to shine. 

pajjoto, light, lustre, lamp ; tela- 
pajjoto, an oil-lamp. 

PANCA (num.), five. 

pahcamo, the fifth, 

PANNA, wisdom, intellect, under- 
standing. 

PANHAM (panham), question. 

PATI and PATI, towards, back, 
in return; in composition before 
vowels, pace. 

pati-kkatnati, to step backwards. 

pati-kkamo, retreating. 

pati-ggahanam, acceptance, receiv- 
ing (to ganhdti). 

pati-ghdto, repulsion, warding ofi^. 

PATI-GHO, anger. 

puti-cchddanarh, concealment. 

pati-cchddi, covering. 

pati-cchddeti, to conceal. 

pati-jdndti, to know, to personate ; 
aor. paccamasi. 

pati-nis-sago (t. t.), forsaking. 

patipadd ({.), step, way. 

pati-pujeti, to honour. 

pati-ppa-ssambhati, to be calmed, to 
subside, to come to an end. 



pati-bujjhati, to awake. 

pati-bhdti, to appear, to be evident. 

pati-rupo (adj.), suitable, fit. 

pati-lab/tati, to obtain, to receive. 

pati-ldbho, obtaining ; attainment. 

pati-vatteti, to subvert ; with a, not 
to be subverted. 

pati-vijjhati, to acquire. 

pati-sankhdti, to reflect. 

pati-sahcikkhati, to consider. 

pati-mm-vedi (adj.), experiencing. 

pati-sarano, refuge, help, 

pati-sundti, to assent ; aor. pace- 
assosi, paccassosum. 

pati-sevati, to practise, to receive. 

PATHAVl (f.), earth. 

pa-ndmati, to bend, 

pa-ni-dahati, to stretch. 

PANIDHI (m.), aspiration (t.t). 

pantto (adj.), accomplished, excel- 
lent ; as neuter, a term for 
nibbdna. 

PANDITO, wise man. 

PANDU (adj,), yellow. 

PANHO and PANHO, question. 

PATATI, to fall ; caus. patayatu 

pati-rupo, suitable. 

pati-sallanam, solitude. 

patisalldndrdmo, delighting in soli- 
tude. 

PA-TITTHA (f.), fixity, resting- 
place. 

PATTAM, a leaf. 

pattakallam, seasonableness, time- 
liness. 

pattactvaram, bowl and robe. 

PATTI (f.), obtaining, acquisition. 

PATTO, bowl. 

patto, p. p. p, of pdpundti. 



GLOSSARY. 



167 



PATTHAYATI, to wish for, to 
desire. 

PA DAM, step; nibbana. 

pa-dahati, to strive, to exert. 

PA-DlPO, lamp. 

pa-duttho, wiclied, evil. 

PANA (adv.), now, further (the 
same as puna). 

pa-nudati, to remove, to reject. 

PANTHO, a road ; also neuter. 

PAPPOTI, see papunati. 

PAPPHASAM, lungs. 

pa-bba-jati, to go forth. 

PA-BBAJITO (t. t.), one who has 
given up the world. 

PABBAJJA (f.), monastic life. 

PABBAJJA (f.) (t.t.), the pabbajja 
ordination. 

PABBATO, mountain.. 

pabhamkaro, light-giving. 

PABHASO, splendour. 

pa-majjati, to delay. [ful. 

pamatto, p. p. p. to pamajjati, sloth- 

pa-maddt (adj.), crushing, destroy- 
ing. 

PA-MANAM, measure. 

PAMADO, carelessness. 

pO'tnuhcati, to release. 

pa-mussati, to leave behind. 

PAMOCANAM, deliverance. 

payirupa-sati, to honour. 

pa-yutto, tied. 

PARAM (adv.), beyond, after. 

paramo, highest. 

parabhava, sufiering, loss. 

PARABHAVO, decay, loss. 

PARI (prep.), around, about, fre- 
quently used in composition, where 
it appears also as PALI. 



PARIKKHARO, apparatus. 
pari-kkhino, wasted. 
pari-cito (p. p. p.), accumulated. 
PARINAMO, change, alteration ; 

digestion. 
PARITTA (f. and n.), protection. 
PARIDEVO, lamentation. 
pari-nibbdti (t. t.), to attain Nibbana. 
pari-pako, maturity, perfection. 
pari-punno, completed. 
pari-bhasati, to revile. 
pari-mukham (adv.), in front, before. 
pariy-addti, to seize, lay hold of. 
pariy-dpundti, to learn thoroughly ; 

p. p. p. pariydputo. 
pari-ydyo, succession, order, way. 
pari-yosdnam, termination. 
pari-rundhati, to surround ; to lay 

siege. 
parl-vatto, circle, succession ; modi 

fication. 
pari-vanneti, to describe, to praise. 
pari-vdreti (cans.), to surround, to 

accompany. 
PARI-VESANA (f. and n.), dUtri- 

bution of food. 
PARISA, assembly. 
pari-sujjhati (pass.), to be purified. 
parisuddho (adj.), pure, clear. 
PARISSAYAM, danger. 
PARIHARO, attention. 
pareto, dead, destroyed. 
PARO (adj.), distant, further ; 

other. 
PARO (adv.), beyond, more than. 
PALASO, a leaf. 
paligho, an obstacle. 
PA-VACANAM, the word of the 

Buddha. 



168 



GLOSSARY. 



pa-vatteti (caus.), to set rolling; ; 
pavattite dhammacakke, having 
founded the kingdom of truth. 

PAVANAM, side of a mountain. 

pa-vapati, to sow. 

pa-vassati, to rain. 

pa-vuati, to enter. 

palayati, to run away. 

pali-gunthati, to envelop, to en- 
tangle. 

PALLANKO, a couch. 

pa-sattho (p. p. p.), praised. [fied. 

pa-sanno, p. p. p. to pasidati, satis- 

pa-sahati, to use force. 

pa-sado, brightness, clearness, glad- 
ness. 

pa-acuiati, to rule. 

PASU, cattle. 

PASSATI, to see. 

pa-ssaddhi (f.), calming down. 

pa-ssambhati, to calm down ; p. p. p. 
passaddho. 

pa-ssambhayam, calming down. 

pa-ssasati, to exhale air. 

PASSAVO, urine. 

PAHANAM, abandoning. 

pa-hitatto, resolute. 

pahuto, much, abundant. 

pa-hoti, to be able. 

pa-honako (adj.), sufficient. 

pakimo (adj.), cooked, dressed, 
ripfned. 

PACANAM, a goad. 

PANAM, living being. 

panatipati (adj.), taking life. 

PANO, breath. 

PANAKO, worm, insect. 

PANI (m.), hand. 

patikankho, to be expected. 



PATIPADIKAM (t.t.), food offered 
on the day following fuU-muon 
day. 

PATANAM, causing to fall. 

gabbhapatanam, causing miscar- 
riage ; abortion. 

PATi (f.), a bowl. 

PATU (adv.), manifestly. 

patu-bhavati, to become visible ; 
aor. patur-ahosi. 

patu-bhavo, appearance. 

pada-talarh, sole of the foot. 

PADO, a small silver coin. 

pdddraho, worth a pdda. 

PADO, foot. 

PANAM, drinking. 

pdpako (adj.), bad. 

pdpiccho, having sinful desires. 

PAPUNATI, PAPONOTI, PAPP- 
OTI, to attain ; pattabbo, attitin- 
able. 

PAPO (adj.), evil, bad. 

PAYASO, rice-milk. 

PARAM, the other shore. 

pdrarh Gangdya, across the Ganges. 

pdri-sajjo (adj.), belonging to an 
assembly ; brahmapdrisajjo, be- 
longing to the retinue of Maha- 
brabma. 

pdri-suddhi, purity, perfection. 

PALAYATI, to guard, to preserve. 

pdliccam, hoariness, greyness of 
hair. [season. 

pd-vuasako, belonging to the rainy 

PASANO, a stone. 

PASADO, house of more than one 
storey, tower, palace. 

pdhuneyyo (adj.), worthy of being 
guests. 



GLOSSARY. 



109 



pitthi-mamsiko (adj.), backbiting. 

pilakd (f.), a boil. 

PINIJAPATO (t.t.), food received 

in the alms bowl. 
PINDI (f.), lump, mass. 
PINDO, lump, ball ; food ; alms. 
PITA (m.), father (see Grammar). 
PITTAM, bile. 
PI-NASO, cold in the head. 
PI PAS A, thirst. 
PIPPHALI (f.), long pepper. 
PIYO (adj.), dear. 
PISUNO (adj.), backbiting. 
PIHAKAM, spleen. 
PiTI, joy, delight. 
PUGGALO, individual. 
PUCCHATI, to ask, to question. 
PUNNO (adj.), good, virtuous. 
PUTTO, son. [wide. 

PUTHU (adv.), separately, far and 
PUNA, see PANA. 
punab-bhavo, rebirth. 
PUPPHAM, flower. 
pubbanho, forenoon. 
PUBBO (adj.), former, early. 
PUBBO, pus, matter. 
PURAM, town. 
pura-kkharoti, to put in front. 
purato (adv.), in front of. 
puratthhno (adj.), eastern. 
PURA (adv.), formerly, previously. 
PURANO, former. 
PURIMO. east. 

PURISAKO, minister, attendant. 
PURISO, man, a male. 
pujako, honouring. 
POJA, attention, veneration. 
POJETI, to honour. 
PCTI, stinking, foal. 



PORO, full. 

PEKHA (f.), desire ; punnapekho, 
looking for good works. 

pecca (ger,), having departed. 

peseti (caus.), to send. 

POKKHARASAKATO, a bird. 

POTAKO, youth, cub. 

potikd (f.), maiden. 

pothujjaniho, belonging to an un- 
converted person ; sensual. 

ponobbhaviko, connected with re- 
birth. 

PORANO and PORANAKO, old. 

POSO, man. 

PLAVATI, or piluvati, to float; 
caus. pildpeti. 

PH. 

PHARATI, to flash, to shine forth. 

PHARUSO, harsh, unkind. 

PHALAM, fruit. 

PHALATI, to split asunder, to 
break open. 

PHANITAM, sugar. 

phdleti (caus.), to split, to cleave. 

PHALO, ploughshare. 

PHASU (adj.), comfortable. 

phdsu-vihdro, comfort, ease. 

PHUTO, thrilled, pervaded. 

PHUSATI, to touch, to reach; 
p. p. p. phuttho. 

PHUSSITO (adj.), flowering, blos- 
soming. 

PHOTTABBAM (t. t.), touch. 

B. 

BANDHATI, to bind. 
BANDHAXAM, binding; bonds, 
fetter. 



170 



OL088ART. 



BANDHU (m.), kinsmnn. 

BALI (in.), religious offering. 

BALIVADDO, an ox. 

BAHU(adj.), many. 

bahu-ppado, having many feet. 

BALHO (adj.), hard, severe, as first 
part of a compound ' very.' 

BALO (adj.), young, foolish. 

BAHIRO (adj.), external. 

BiJAM, grm, seed. 

BUDDHO, an epithet of Gotama, 
and used as a designation of 
Gotama ' the Enlightened.' 

BOJJHANGO (t. t.), constituents 
of wisdom. 

BODHI (f.), wisdom. 

BRAVlTI, BROTI, to say, to tell. 

BRAHMAM, practice of devotion. 

BRAHMACARIYAM (t. t., also 
fem.), a religious life ; the duties 
of a religious life. 

BRAHMANO, a brahmin. 

by-anti-karoti, to abolish, to re- 
move. 

BY AS AN AM, misfortune, unhap> 
piness. 

byd-karoti, to answer. 

BYADHI (m.), illness. 

BYAPADO, wish to injure. 

BYAROSANA (f.), anger. 

BH. 

BHAKKHO (adj.), eating. 

BHAOANDALA (f.), fistula. 

BH AGAVA (adj.), worshipful, 

venerable ; an epithet of the 

Buddha. 
BHAGINl (f.), sister. 
BHANGAJVI, hempen cloth. 



BHAJATf, to serve, to honour; to 
cultivate. 

BHANATI, to shine. 

BHANATI, to speak; pass, bha- 
nnati. 

BHATTAM, food; uddeta (t.t.), 
food given on special occasions ; 
aaldka (t. t), ticket food. 

BHADANTO, term for addressing 
a Buddhist monk. 

BHADDO, BHADRO (adj.), good. 

BHAYAM, fear. 

BHARATI, to bear, to support. 

BH AVAIVT, lord, sir (see Grammar). 

BHAVATI, to be, to exist. 

BHAVANAM, being, existence ; 
realm. 

BHAVO, corporeal existence, birth. 

BHAGO, portion, part, share. 

BHATARO, brother. 

BHATA (m.), brother. 

BHARO, burden. 

bhdveti (cans, to bhavati), to in- 
crease, to cause to exist. 

BHAVO, property. 

BHASATI, to tell. 

BHIKKHU, title of a Buddhist 
monk. 

BHIKH;^N! (f), female mendicant. 

BHISMO (adj.), terrible. 

BHiYO, BHIYYO (adj.), more. 

BHiRU (adj.), timid. 

BHUJISSO, a free man; a freed 
slave. 

BHUNJATI, to enjoy ; to eat. 

bhummo (adj.), terrestrial. 

BHUSAM (adv.), much, exceed- 
ingly. 

bhutakalo, time to speak the truth. 



GLOSSARY. 



171 



bhutapubbo (adj.), that has ben 

before. 
BH CTO, spirit, being. 
BHCMI(f.), the earth. 
BHEDO, parting. 
BHERAVO (adj.), frightful. 
BHESAJJAM, medicine. 
BHO, sir, master (see Grammar). 
BHOGO, wealth ; appa-bhogo, 

having little property. 
BHOJANAM, food. 

M. 

MAMS AM, flesh. 
MAKASO, a gnat, mosquito. 
MAKKHI (adj.), concealing ; pa- 

pamakkhi, hypocritical. 
MAGGO, path. 
MANKU, troubled, restless. 
MANGALO (adj.), happy. 
MACCU (m.), death. 
MAJJAM, strong drink. 
majjhimo (adj.), middle. 
MAJJHO, middle. 
MANNATI, to think. 
MAXDANAM, adornment. 
MANDALI (adj.), having a disc. 
MATTA (f.), measure ; quality. 
MATTHAKAM, head. 
MATTHALUNGAM, brain. 
MADO, enjoyment. 
MADHU(n.), honey. 
madfiumeho, diabetes. 
MANAPO, pleasing, pleasant, 

charming. 
MANUSSO, man, human being. 
MANO, mind (also neuter). 
tnanoramo (adj.), pleasant, delight* 

ful. 



MANTETI, to consult, to advise. 
MANTO, hymn ; the Vedns. 
MANDIVO, slowness, stupidity. 
mamayito, concerning oneself ; own. 
MAYURO, MORO, peacock. 
MARANAM, dying, death. 
mahab-balo, having great strength. 
MAHA, great (see Grammar). 
mahd-matto, king's minister, g^at 

noble. 
maha-raja, king, great king. 
MA, negation. 
MALUTO, wind. 
MANAVAKO (adj.), young; a 

young man. 
MATA (f.), mother (see Grammar). 
MANASO, lust. 
MANUSO, MANUSi (f.) (adj.), 

human. 
MANO, pride, arrogance. 
MAYA (f.), illusion, deceit; mayavi, 

deceitful. 
MARISO, venerable person ; term 

of address. 
MALA (f.), a garland. 
MASO, month. 
MIGO, antelope, deer. 
MICCHA (adv.), falsely, wrongly. 
miccha-caro, wrong conduct. 
MITTO, friend. 
MIDDHAM, sleep ; vigatamiddho, 

awake. 
MINATI, to measure ; p. f. p. 

tnetabbo. 
MUKHAM, mouth, face; means, 

cause. 
MURHO, face. 
MUCCHA (f.), faintnesB. 
MUNCATI, to release. 



172 



GLOSSARY. 



MUNDAKO, shaveling, term of 

reproach. 
MUTTAM, urine ; putimuttam, 

urine of cattle. 
MUTTr(f.), release. 
MUDU (adj.), soft. 
MUDDHA (m.), head. 
MUDHA (adv.), gratis, for nothing. 
MUSA (adv.), wrongly. 
musa-vddo, lying, falsehood. 
MUHUTTO, second, hrief measure 

of time. 
MOLHO, stupid. 
MCLAM, root. 
MCSTKO, a fly. 
MEG HO, cloud, storm, rain. 
METHUNO (adj.), relating to 

sexual intercourse. 
ME DO, fat, blubber. 
MERAYAM, intoxicating liquor. 
MODATI, to rejoice. 
MORO, see MAYURO. 
MOHO, ignorance. 

Y. 

YAKANAJfr, the liver. 
YAKKHO, a superhuman being, a 

yaksha. 
YATI, to restrain ; p. p. p. yato. 
YATO (adv.), since. 
YATTHA (adv.), the same as 

^ yatra,'' inasmuch. 
YATHA (adv.), as. 
yathabhutam (adv.), according to 

the reality. 
YADA (adv.), when, whenever. 
YASO, fame, renown. 
ycusassivd, surrounded by eminent 

men. 



yasassl (adj.), famous. 

YACATI, to ask, to beg, to entreat. 

YATI, to go. 

YATRA (f.), livelihood. 

YANAM, going, preceding ; car- 
riage, car. 

ydni-fcato, used as a vehicle. 

YAPANAM, maintenance. 

YAPANATI, to live. 

YAVA (adv.), as long ; ydva ki- 
vanca, and as long as ; in con- 
junction with eva, ydvad eva, so 
long as. 

Y'UGAM, pair ; generation. 

YUGO (also neuter), yoke. [to. 

Y UN J ATI, to turn one's attention 

YEBHUYYO (adj.), abundant ; 
yebhuyyena, in great numbers. 

YO (pron.), who (see Grammar). 

YOGAKKHEMO, security ; t. t. 
Nibbana. 

YOTTAM, tie. 

YONI (f.), womb ; source, origin. 

YONISO, really. 

YOBBANAM, youth. 

R. 

RAKKHATI, to protect. 

RAKKHA (f.), protection. 

RAJATAM, silver. 

RAJJAM, kingdom. 

RATTI (f.), night. 

ratti-n-divo, day and night. 

RABHASO (adj.), contemptuous, 
fierce. 

RAMATI, to enjoy oneself, to de- 
light in ; rato, delighting. 

RASO, sap, juice ; sweet thing ; 
taste. 



GLOSSART. 



178 



rtusako (adj.), short. 
RASSO (adj.), short. 
RAHADO, a deep pool, a lake. 
RAHO, solitude. 

RAGO, evil desire, greed, attach- 
ment, lust. 
rajadhant, royal city. 
rajabhato, king's soldier. 
RAJA (m.), king, see Grammar. 
RAMO, joy, delight. 
RITTO [rishta], injured. 
RUDDO (adj.), cruel. 
RUKKHO, a tree. 
ROPAM (t. t.), form, figure. 
ROGO, illness. 
ROCETI (caus.), to approve. 
ROSAKO (adj.), wTathful. 



LABHATI, to take ; p. p. p. 
laddho. 

LAYO, instant (brief measure of 
time). 

LASIKA (f.), the fluid which lubri- 
cates the joints. 

LABHA (adv. dat.), for the ad- 
vantage of. 

LUDDO (adj.), cruel. 

LOKO, world. 

loka-jettho, chief of the world. 

LOKA-DHAMMO (t. t.), things of 
the world, worldly condition. 

loka-dhatu, world-system. 

loka-vidu, knowing the world (epi- 
thet of the Buddha). 

LOMAM, hair of the body. 

LOMAHAIMSO, horripilation. 

LOHITAM, blood. 

LOHITO (adj.), red. 



V. 

VAKKAM, kidney. 

vaggiyo (adj.), belonging to a group. 

VAGGU (adj.), beautiful. 

VACCO, lustre. 

VAJATI, to walk. 

VAJIRO, Indra's thunderbolt. 

VANCANIKO, deceitful. 

VANCETI (caus.), to deceive. 

VADDHATI, to grow, to increase; 

to pour out. 
VANNO, appearance, beauty, form ; 

caste ; vannava (adj.), having 

beauty. 
VATA (inter).), indeed ! verily ! 
VATTATI, to take place. 
VATTHAM, cloth ; raiment. 
VATTHU (n.), substance. 
VATTHU (m.), a site, a building 

(Skr. vdstu). 
V AD ATI, to declare ; to speak. 
VANAM, wood, forest. 
VANATHO, desire, lust. 
VANIBBAKO, mendicant. 
VANDAKO, praising. 
VANDATI, to praise. 
VAPATI, to sow. 
VAPPO, sowing. 

varanhu, knowing what is excellent. 
varado, giving what is excellent. 
varaharo, bringing what is excellent. 
VARO (adj.), excellent 
VALl (f.), a wrinkle. 
valittaro (adj.), ^Tinkled. 
VASATI, to dwell. 
vatalako, wretched, outcast. 
VASA (f.), serum ; marrow of the 

flesh. 



174 



GLOSSARY. 



VASALO, outcast. 

VASSO, rain ; a year. 

VA (conj.), pa tfd, either . . or. 

VACA (f.), word, saying, speech. 

VATO, wind. 

VADITAM, music. 

VADO, speaking, speech. 

VAYAMATI, to struggle, to strive. 

VAyAMO (t. t.), exertion, endea- 
vour. 

VASO, dwelling, living, abode. 

VAHANAM, carrying; a vehicle; 
an animal used in riding. 

VI (prep.), used in composition, 
asunder, apart from. 

vi-kalo, wrong time. 

VIGGAHO, body ; manussa, a 
human being. [parsing. 

vi-kirano (adj.), squandering, dis- 

vi-kkandati, to cry out. 

vi-gahati, to obtain. 

vi-cakkhano, knowing', wise, dis- 
cerning. 

vi-carati, to wander. 

vi-cdro, investigation. 

VICIKICCHITAM, doubt. 

VICCHIKO, scorpion. 

vi-jand-vato (adj.), understanding. 

vi-jeti, vi-jinuti, to conquer. 

VIJJATI, to know (see Grammar). 

VIJJATI, to be, to exist. 

VIJJA (f.), knowledge, wisdom. 

VIJJU (f.), lightning. 

vijjuko (adj.), lightning. 

VIIK^NANAM, consciousness, in- 
telligence. 

vihndpeti (cans, to vijdndti), to 
speak to, to address, to inform. 

VINNO (adj.), intelligent. 



VI-TAKKO, reflection, thought. 
VITACCHIKA (f.), scabies. 
VITTAM, property, wealth. 
vitthdrati, to declare, to amplify ; 

aor. vitthasi. [cation. 

vitthdro, detail, extension, amplifi- 
VI DO (adj.), knowing, wise. 
VI-NAYO, training. 
VINA (adv.), without. 
vi-ndseti, to waste. 
vineti, to remove, to put away. 
vinodanam, removal, dispelling. 
vinodeti (cans.), to dispel. 
VINDATI, to acquire. 
vi-pdceti, to be indignant. 
VI-PARI-NAMO, change, reverse. 
vi-ppa-mutto (p. p. p.), released. 
vi-ppa-yogo, absence. 
vippa-vasati, to go abroad ; p. p. p. 

vippavuttho. 
vippavdso, absence ; ticivarenca 

avippavdso, not parting with the 

three robes. 
vi-ppa-sldati, to become calm. 
vi'bhajati, to divide, to distinguish. 
VIBHAVO, power, prosperity. 
VI-BHAVO (t. t.), absence of ex- 
istence, formless existence. 
vibhdvayatl, to understand. 
vibhusanaiii, adornment. 
vi-muncati, to release ; p. p. p. 

vimutto. 
VI.MUTTI(f.), release. 
VI-MOKHO, release. 
VI-MOCAVAM, releasing. 
vi-rajo, free from corruption, pure ; 

free from dust. 
vi-rajjdti, to be displeased ; p. p. p. 

viratto. 



GLOSSARY. 



176 



VIRATI (f.), abstinence. 
vi-ramati, to abstnin. 
vi-ravati, to cry aloud. 
vi-rago, absence of desire. 
vira>eti (cans.), to put away. 
VIRIYAM, exertion, strength. 
vi-ruhati, to go on. 
vi-rocati, to lie brilliant. 
VILEPANAM, toilet perfume. 
vi-varati, to open ; p. p. p. vivato. 
VI-VEKO, separation, seclusion ; 

discrimination. 
viviccati (pass.), to separate oneself. 
VISAM, poison. 
vi-samo (adj.), uneven. 
vi-auddho, (adj.), pure. 
VISOKAM, show, spectacle. 
VISOCIKA (f.), cholera. 
VISESO, distinction. 
vi-ssuto (adj.), renowned. 
viharati, to dwell. 

VI-HARO, living; Buddhist temple. 
vi-himsati, to hurt. 
VI HI MSA (f.), hurting. 
mta-malo, spotless. 
VITO (adj.), devoid of; a-vito, not 

free from. 
vitipatati, to transgress. 
vi-ti-sareti, to remind mutually. 
ViRO, hero. 
ViSATI (num.), twenty. 
VUTTHI (f.), rain. 
VUTTI (f.), conduct. 
vutiiavd, dwelling, residing. 
vun-ma (adj.), dwelling. 
vupakattho, distant, removed. 
VOPASAMO, paciBcation. 
VE (interj.), indeed. 
VEiyU (m.), a bamboo, a reed. 



VEDAGO (t. t.), knowing the law. 
VEDANA (f.) (t. t.), perception, 

sensation. 
VEPULLAM, development. 
veyyd-karanam, explanation. 
VEYYABADHIKO, sick, ill; to 

byabddho. [al>l.). 

VERAMANi (f.), abstinence (with 
VEROCANAKO, bright. 
VELA (f.), time, occasion. 
VELO, time. 

VEVANNIYAM, change, diversity. 
VESi (f.), harlot. 
VEHASO, sky. 
VOROPETI (cans.), to deprive of. 

S. 

SA, as first member of a compound 
' with.' 

SAMYOJANAlff (t. t.), bond, at- 
tachment. 

samhanti, to strike. 

SAKO (adj.), own. 

SAKKACCA (adv.), attentively. 

SAK-KAYA-DITTHI (t. t.), con- 
ceit. 

SAK-KAYO, own body or person. 

SAK-KARO, hospitality. 

aak-karoti, to receive hospitality, to 
honour. 

SAKKO (adj.), able. 

SAKKHf, witness. 

SAKHA (m.), companion, friend 
(see Grammar). 

SAGGO, heaven. 

8ANKAPP0 (t.t.), thought, Imagi- 
nation, aspiration. 

tan-kampati, to quake, to tremble. 

san-kuddho, ang^y. 



176 



GLOSSARY. 



SAN-KHARO (t. t.), the elements, 

matter. 
san-khipati, to shorten, to abridge. 
aan-khittena, concisely, l)riefly. 
SAN-GAHO, protecting. 
SAN-GAM O, conflict, battle. 
SAN-GHATi (t.t.), one of the three 

robes of a priest. 
SANG HO, the Buddliist clerical 

community. 
SACE (conj.), if. 
SACCAM, truth. 
tacchikaroti, to see face to face ; 

p. p. p. sacchikato. 
SACCHIKIRIYA (f.), realization. 
sahcicca (adv. ger.), intentionally. 
SANJATI (f.), birth. 
samamo, refraining. 
SANNA (t. t.) (f.), perception. 
SATHO (adj.), wicked, crafty. 
SATTHI (num.), sixty. 
SANHO (adj.), soft ; smooth, gentle. 
SATAM (num.), a hundred. 
SATI (f.), thoughtfuluess, remem- 
brance. 
aatima (adj.) of retentive memory; 

thoughtful, reflecting. 
Sato, p. p. p. garati, recollecting, 

mindful. 
SAITA (num.), seven. 
SATTATI, seventy. 
tattavdso, abode of beings. 
SATTO, being. 
SATTHAM, weapon. 
SATTHA (m.), teacher. 
tad-attho, one's own advantage. 
SADA (adv.), always. 
SAD-DAHATI, to believe; p.p. 

aaddahdno. 



SADDO, sound. 

SADDHA, faith. 

SADDHIM (adv.), with. 

SANTA M (a term for Nibbana). 

aan-tatto, scorched. 

tan-tarati, to be in haste. 

SANTIKE (adv.), in the presence of. 

SANTUTTHi (f.), contentment. 

SANTUSSAKO, contented. 

SANTO, true, good. 

san-dasseti (cans.), to show, to teach. 

san-ditthiko (adj.), visible. 

aan-dhupdyati, to smoke. 

8an-nayhati, to bind, to fasten. 

san-ni-patati, to assemble. 

8annipatiko{a,A].), gathered together. 

SAPADANAM (adv.), constantly ; 
8ap pinddya carati, goes his 
begging-rounds constantly. 

SAPPI, cow's butter. 

sap-puriso, good man. 

sabbattha (adv.), everywhere. 

sabbattho, in every respect. 

sabba-dhi, from all sides. 

SABBO (pron. adj.), every one, all 
(see Grammar). 

SABHA (f.), an assembly. 

samanako, wretched samana. 

SAMANO, an ascetic. 

SAM ATTO (adj.), complete. 

SAMATHO, tranquillity. 

SAMANTO, all, entire ; aamantd, 
from every side. 

aamanndgato, endowed with. 

SAMAYO, time, assembly, agree- 
ment ; ekatii samayam, once upon 
a time. 

aama-vekkhati, to take into con- 
sideration. 



GLOSSARY. 



177 



sam-a-gacchati, to assemble. 
tam-a-carati, to follow. 
sam-a-dapeti (caus. samadiyati), to 

instig'ate, to advise. 
sam-a-dahati, to put together ; pass. 

samadhlyati, to become tran- 

quilized. 
SAMADHI (f.) (t.t.), meditation. 
SAMANO (adj.), equal, same, 

similar. [ment. 

SAM-A-PATTI (f.) (t.t.), attain- 
tam-d-hito, steadfast. 
tam-ikkliati, to consider, to reflect. 
SAM-ITI (f.), assembly. 
sam-uk-kajjisati, to exalt. 
sain-ug-ghato, removal. 
sam-ut-thanam, rising, originating. 
sam-ut'tejeti (caus.), to stir, to excite. 
SAM-UD-AYO, rise, origin. 
sam ud-eti, to arise ; samudito, ele- 
vated. 
SAMUDDO, sea. 
sam-upabbulho (p. p. p.), set up. 
sam-uhanti, to remove. 
SAMO, equal. 
sam-pa-kampati, to tremble, to 

sbake ; a-sam-pa-kampiyo, that 

cannot be shaken. 
sam-paj'ano, conscious. 
sam-patto (p. p. p.), endowed with. 
sam-pa-dhupayati, to smoke in 

volumes. 
sam-panno (p. p. p.), endowed with. 
SAM-PA- YOGO, union, presence. 
tam-parayiko (adj.), relating to the 

future. 
SAM-PARAYO, future state, next 

world. 
tam-pa-vedhati, to tremble. 



tam-pa-gadanath, making serene ; 

tranqiiilization. 
sam-passati, to behold, to discern. 
sam-pa-hamseti (cnus.), to gladden, 

to delight, to praise. 
sampha-ppa-lapo, frivolous talk. 
sam-phassa-jo, urising from contact. 
SAM-PHASSANAM (t.t.), contact. 
sam-phasso, contact. 
sam-bahulo (adj.), many. 
sam-bddAo, pressure, straits. 
SAM-BOJJHAJNfGO (t. t), con- 

stitucnt of bodhi. 
sambhav-esi (adj.), seeking rebirth. 
SAM-BHAVO, production. 
sam-mannati, to agree to, to decide ; 

to sanction. 
SAMMA (indecl.), fully, thoroughly 
(used frequently in composition) ; 
Sammd sambuddho, the All Wise. 
aam-mukht-bhuto, confronted. 
sam-mukho (adj.), face to face. 
SAM-MUTI (f.), consent, choice, 

determination. 
sam-muyhatit to be stupefied ; p.p. p. 

sammulho. 
sani'modati, to agree with ; taddhiih 
8, to exchange friendly greetings. 
SAMVARI (f.), night. 
sam-vaso, living with. 
sam-viggo, excited. 
SAYATI, to lie down. 
SA YANAM (SENAM), lying, sleep- 
ing ; bed, couch. 
SARANAM, refuge. 
SARABO (f.), a lizard. 
sar'ito (p. p. p.), flowing. 
SARiRAM, body. 
SARO, sound. 

12 



178 



GL08RARY. 



SALAKA, a peg ; slip, bit of wood. 
tal-lahuko (i><lJ-)> l>g)>t. 
SALLiNO, bent together. 
SAVANAM, hearing. 
SASSU (f.), mother-in-law. 
SAHA (in composition), together, 

with. 
saha-gato, accompanied. 
safiasa (adv.), with violence. 
SAHASSl, thousand (in composi- 
tion). 
SAHA (adv.), witli. 
aaha-silt (adj.), being fond of society. 
SAKACCHA (f.), conversation. 
SADHU (adv.), well, good. 
SANAM, hempen cloth. 
SAMICI (f.), correctness. 
SAYANHO, evening. 
SAYATI, to taste. 
SARATHI, charioteer. 
aarantyo (adj.), that which should 

be remembered. 
sa-ruppo (adj.), 6t, proper. 
SALI (m.), rice. 
SALIKA (f.), the maynah-bird. 
SAVAKO, a disciple. 
taveti. {ctius. to sunoti), to impart, 

to inform. 
SASANAM, order, command. 
Buddhas, the teaching of the 

Buddha. 
SASO, astlimn. 
SIKKHATI, to learn. 
SIKHA (f.), peak, summit; aggi- 

sikfia, flame of fire. 
SIKKH APADA.\I (t. t.), sentence of 

moral training. 
SINGHANIKA, mucus of the nose. 
SITO (Skr. gritd), resting upon. 



8IPPAM, skill. 

SIRIMSAPO, a snake. 

tiri-tna (adj.), having magnificence, 

glory. 
SFRl (f.), fortune, prosperity. 
SI LA (f.), a rock. 
SITjOKO, a stanza, a qloka. 
SIVIKA(f.), a palanquin. 
SI VO (adj.), auspicious, blest, happy. 
STMA (f.). boundary, limit. 
SiTAM, coldness. 
SiTO (adj.), col<l, cool. 
SiLAM (t, t.), nature, character ; 

moral character, piety. 
SiLABBATAM (t.t.), aflfection of 

good rites. 
sila-va (adj.), virtuous. 
SILI (adj.), having a habit, dispo- 
sition ; niddd-tP, drowsy, slothful. 
SiSAM, head. 
Si HO, lion. 

SU (in composition), well, good. 
SUKO, a parrot. 
SUKHO (adj.), blest, happy. 
SUKHO, bliss. 
SU-GATO, happy (epithet of the 

Buddha). 
su-gandho, of good smell. 
su-ggahito (adj.), grasped. 
8UCI (f.), purity. 
8u-cinno, well done. 
SUNNAGARAI^r, solitude, place 

void of houses. 
SUNOTI, SUNATI, to hear (see 

Grammar). 
8uto (p. p. p.), heard, renowned. 
gudath (part.), sma + idam. 
tu-dul-lahho, very difficult to obtain. 
8U-DHAMMAT0 (t.t), perfection. 



GLOSSARY. 



179 



8UDDH0 (adj.), clean. 

su-pati-panno, well-conducted. 

SUPATI, to sleep. 

SUPINAM, sleep. [joined. 

su-ppa-yutto (p. p. p.), thoroughly 

su-bhavo, easily supported. 

su-mano, satisfied. 

su-mapito (adj.), well-built. 

SURA (f.), intoxicating liquor. 

SURIYO, the sun. 

su-vi-jdno, easily known. 

SUSU, a boy. 

SUSSOSA (f.), desire to hear. 

SCJU (adj.), conscientious. 

SOLO, rheumatism. 

SEMHAM, phlegm. 

SEKHO (t. t.), one who is under 
training. 

SETTHO (adj.), best, foremost. 

SEDO, sweat, moisture. 

SENA (f.), army. 

SEN-ASANAM, [sleeping and sit- 
ting] dwelling. 

seyyako (adj.), lying, sleeping. 

SEVATI, to serve, to follow. 

SEVANA (f.), addicted to, devotion 
to ; A-sevana, not addicted to. 

SO (pron.), this (see Grammar). 

SO (adj.), own ; sarh (adv.) by 
oneself. 

SOKO, sorrow, grief. 

SOCATI, to grieve. 

socanatfam, mourning. 

SOCANAM, mourning. 

SONDO (adj.), addicted to drink ; 
fem. SOXpI. 



SOTAJ*, ear. [tlon. 

SOTAPATTI (f.), (t. t.), sanctifica- 
SOTTHANAM, blessing. 
SOBHATI, to shine. 
SORACCAM, tenderness. 
sovacassatd (f.), pleasant speech. 
SOSO, consumption. 
8v-akkhdto, well told. 

H. 

HA (interj.), truly. 

HATTHI (m.), elephant. 

HATTHO (p. p. p.), bristling. 

HATTHO, hand. 

H ADA YAM, heart. 

HANTI, to kill. 

HAND A (interj.), come onl 

HAM MI YAM, house surrounded 

by walls. 
HARATI, to carry away. 
HARI (adj.), green. 
HARITAM, grass. 
haritattam, greenness, yellowness. 
HAVE (interj.), truly. 
HI (part.), for, because ; certainly, 

indeed ; also. 
HIMSATI, to hurt. 
HIRANNAM, gold. 
HIRi, modesty, shame. 
HITO (p. p. p. and adj.), beneficial. 
hino (p. p. p.), wasted, decayed. 
HETHETI, to injure. 
HETTHIMO (adj.), lower, lowest. 
HETU (adv.), on account of, by 

means of. 
HOT!, to be ; see bhavati. 



HERTFORD : 

FRINTZD BY eTIFHEN ATIBTIS AND SONS. 



SINHALESE ALPHABET. 



Vowels 

^ a ^ a. (^ i if I (^y u. (^ u Se d o. 
Vowel Symbols. 

0. ^. ^ . J. J. ^. (B^ 0. 

t^ ka. Z^^ha )ki fc fi SJ^Jku. ty\Jkn6^ke. 6t3nko. 

^khu. ^ khu. 
Nasal Vowels. 

The symhol is <? . <Y>6 ant. It is also used 
for any nasal hefore anc^her Consonant 

Consonants. 

^ ka. 'o) . kha 00 ga. t50 gha D ^a 

O ca d^cka ^j^ f^jha Q5^ ^ 

ta (^ tha d du tb d^a S^ 'na 

tX) du (3 tha C^ da Zd dha ^^ Tia 

^ pa e3 pha ^ Va &S Vha ^ ma 

60 ya 6 ra /^ la* -^t~) 'i'^ 

t^ sa 60 %a f^ la. 

Consonant Symbols 

r. ^ hra 

Tlrama ' ^ k. ^ nv. 

Compound Consonants. 

QCs 'nj^aW^ ^a (XS'^ja nda (Lb tlha 
(to ddha tD cca U) 'bha c^ 'nilMZ. 

^U) Tikha. e^^ jjha r^ tlha S^ 'ndha 



un 



Burmese Alphabet. 



Vowels. __ 

SYMBOLS.} L) lb 

CJOka,. COokcij c8ki. cSH. coku. en ku. crcoke.cxrDokc. 
O/ ga GO I go. 

Nns/iL Vowels. The syrnhil for the nasal votv-ds is 
5^ am . 11 is also vised tb express any nasal htforc 
another consonant. 
Simple Consonants. 
CIO ka O kha 



O.S) ca 
C ta 
OO ta 
U pa 
(JO ya 
OO Sa 



DO cha 
G tha 
OO ^ha 
(J -pha 
O.OJ ra 
OO ha 



Consonant Symbols. 
C iia. ^ 
OJ ya, J 

1 ^ C 

ij-a 

a 

J 
Virdma 



O ga 
O ja 

3 <ia 

CO la 

OCT nka 



IX) gha 
qj jha 
^ dha 
O dha 
OO hha 
O V-a 



C na 
OD na 
COO 7ia 
t> -na 
Q ma 



O -V-a 
OO ha 



O^ yya ^ Uhya 

(m kra /3 ^ra 

GO ft^a 

on nha O rtiha 



ob^t. 



Compound Consonants. 

(^ ryda eg ?i/ia g ddka 



ddha 



O) ppa O ^/^^ta 



OOO Ssa. 



h 

OO OQ s^n a 
O ^ 



stn 



XAMBODIAN ALPHABET. 

Vowels. , 

%^a. %^cL. /Ti. ^ i. Q^vb. QjjM 0\e. \ o. 

^ i^ ^ ^Q^ 0,^ 
Vowel Symbols. 



o <i> 



PTka. e^ka ^ki ^ki. eTku.?^ku.C^ke.C^h 

Nasal Vowels. The symhol ^ is added to the simple 
irow-el: %^ arn . It is also used as a nasal hefcrt 
another consonant . 

Simple Consonants 

^ ka O kha f? ga Xl^ gka O -iia 

i3 ca ^ cha ^ ja flSJ jha TQ ^a 

i^ ta ^ Iha n da (T^ dha ti^ na 

^ ta ^ thu ^ da t(S dha ^ Tva 

tS pa W pha G^ Int '^ Vha %^ ma 

i^X^tfcL ^ ra SkS la ^ v-a 

^ sa U^ha "^ la 

Compound Consonants 

fSymtcl for rcL j )0 l^ra \^^ ndra 

gemintdtcn j ^Vssa SS^ ppa 



**P klika iz^^ ncfka ^ ccka C^ nca ^)0 ttka 
(AO nda f^ ttha O ti^a ^^ ddha ^ dvu 
JV nna %^ mVa. 



k 



V 



C 



CO 



o 
o 



t ~2 



o 

tf> i J 

o 



t 



At 
o 
o 

14 



O 
A -J 



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